报告: May 2011的归档

FEMINISM, POWER, AND SEX WORK IN THE ONTEXT OF HIV/AIDS: CONSEQUENCES

FOR WOMEN'S HEALTH

 

AZIZA AHMED*

 

  Globally, women constitute approximately fifty percent of all HIV infections. Women may eventually comprise the majority of people living with HIV/AIDS in the world; this is already true in Sub-Saharan Africa where women constitute sixty percent of the individuals living with HIV. The recognition that women's inequality may be a driver of women's vulner- ability to contracting HIV has led to a series of feminist legal responses in an effort to address HIV.

 

  This Article assesses feminists' conflicting legal, policy, and regulatory proposals to address sex workers' vulnerability to contracting HIV. This Article employs a Governance Feminism ("GF") analysis that allows us to assess feminists as powerful actors in the institutions that govern HIV. This Article focuses on two cases in which particular legal and policy proposals can be traced directly to feminist engagement and disagreement: the drafting of the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS Guidance Note on Sex Work and the creation and implementation of the Anti-Prostitution Loyalty Oath.


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艾滋病背景下的女权主义,权利与性工作:对女性健康的影响

作者:Aziza Ahmed

哈佛大学法律与社会性别期刊

 

全球范围内妇女约占艾滋感染人口的一半。在未来,妇女有可能最终将成为主要艾滋感染人口,这种情况在撒哈拉以南的非地区已成为现实,艾滋感染者中60%为妇女。普遍认为妇女的不平等地位是使妇女面对艾滋感染时异常脆弱,这也导致在抗击艾滋的努力中很多出现了一系列女权主义的法律回应。

  本文分析了不同的女性主义者针对性工作者感染艾滋的脆弱性所提出的相互冲突的法律、政策和管理方面的提案。文章采用Governance Feminism分析法让读者了解女权主义者作为有影响力的行动者,积极参与对艾滋问题的管理。本文关注的两个案例可以清晰地表明女权主义者如何参与不同的法律和政策提案,以及如何表达不一致的意见。这两个案例分别是:《联合国联合项目:艾滋指南与性工作须知》和《打击卖淫效忠誓言》的制定和实施。


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   Booklet explains unique health needs and sets forth principles of practice for doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers.

 

  May 17, 2011 - The Global Forum on MSM & HIV (MSMGF) has published a new primer for doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers designed to improve the quality of clinical care available to men who have sex with men (MSM) across a broad range of contexts.  Released on May 17, the International Day against Homophobia, the booklet identifies stigma and discrimination as key barriers preventing MSM from accessing vital health services.

 

  Entitled "Engaging with Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Clinical Setting," the primer was developed in response to the unacceptable quality of care offered to MSM at clinics around the world.  High levels of homophobia among clinic staff have led to negligent care and severe violations of patient rights, such as verbal abuse and confidentiality breeches.  In addition, clinical curricula in many low- and middle-income countries have failed to include content on MSM health, leaving healthcare professionals with no knowledge of MSM health needs or the ways to address them.  

 

  Such substandard care has been a primary factor in the surge of HIV among MSM around the world as well as lower health outcomes overall.  More than half of MSM globally report that it is difficult or impossible to access vital services like HIV testing and treatment, while HIV prevalence rates skyrocket above 20% in countries like Senegal, Jamaica and Thailand.  Studies indicate that MSM also experience higher rates of depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide due to high levels of stress and alienation from social services and support.

 

  The primer aims to improve the standard of clinical care for MSM by providing basic knowledge about homosexuality and MSM health needs, as well as offering a set of principles for effective engagement of MSM in a healthcare setting.  The booklet begins by dispelling common myths about homosexuality and exploring the role of service providers in meeting the needs of MSM.  These needs are then examined in greater detail, with a focus on sexual health, mental health, drug use and violence.  The primer concludes with a roadmap for healthcare providers, providing guidance on leading community-level engagement with MSM and enhancing local capacity to meet MSM needs.

 

 "Healthcare providers play a central part in the well-being of MSM around the world," said Dr. George Ayala, Executive Officer of the MSMGF. "We have seen how damaging it can be when they are ill-equipped to handle the needs of MSM.  But with the proper tools at their disposal, they have the potential to be an equally powerful force for good.  This primer represents a first step toward that goal."

 

  The primer is currently available in English and can be found on the MSMGF's website at the following link:

http://www.msmgf.org/files/msmgf//Publications/MSMGF_Healthcare_Primer.pdf

 

  Translations are forthcoming in Russian, French and Spanish.  Any questions can be directed to contact@msmgf.org.


Organization: MSMGF

MSMGF


    全球男男艾滋病论坛近期以改善男男性行为者(MSM)的医护质量为目标,针对医生、护士和其他医护人员设计了最新的工作指南。指南在2011517国际不再恐惧同志日发布,声明污名化和歧视是妨碍MSM群体获得关键医疗服务的主要障碍。

   
"男男性行为者所面临的医疗环境"为标题,该指南针对全球MSM群体所接受的质量低下的医护服务给予回应。由于医护人员对同性恋存在高度的恐惧,导致病 患的权利遭到忽视和践踏,例如言语攻击和个人信息外泄。另外,在很多中低收入国家,医疗课程并没有包含MSM健康的相关内容,因此医疗从业人员无法了解 MSM群体的健康需求,更不用谈如何满足这些需求。

   
由于目前艾滋病在MSM群体中迅速传播的现实,对此类医疗标准的需求更加凸显。全球超过一半的MSM人口表示很难或根本不可能获得艾滋病毒测试和治疗,而 与此同时,泰国、牙买家和塞内加尔的艾滋流行率迅速上升20% 研究显示由于无法获得社会服务与支持,MSM人口承受了极高的压力,导致该群体高频率的抑郁、焦虑、滥用药物和自杀。

   
本指南以提高MSM群体医护标准为目标,为医护人员提供同性恋和MSM健康需求的基本知识,同时也提供一整套行之有效的MSM医疗环境参与准则。针对 MSM健康需求,有以下几个主要分类:性健康、心理健康、药物使用与暴力。本指南为医护人员提供如何参与社区层面的MSM治疗,以及如何提高本土医疗能力 以满足MSM群体的需求。


Asia Report 翻译

指南下载(英文):
http://www.msmgf.org/files/msmgf//Publications/MSMGF_Healthcare_Primer.pdf

机构: MSMGF

By Miguel Gomez, AIDS.gov Director

Yesterday, we blogged that NIH released findings from an important large-scale clinical study that found that men and women living with HIV who took oral antiretroviral medicines when their immune systems were relatively healthy, were able to reduce the risk of transmitting the virus to their sexual partners.

We also heard from the CDC Director Thomas R. Frieden, M.D., M.P.H., yesterday, who noted,

"These results represent another significant step forward in HIV prevention and reinforce the importance of people everywhere knowing their HIV status and being linked to services for HIV prevention, care and treatment - all of which are key components of CDC HIV prevention strategies. They also remind us of the urgency of ensuring that testing and treatment are widely available, that ARVs are becoming an important component of HIV prevention strategies, and that prevention and treatment for HIV are inseparable.

While today's announcement provides cause for optimism that this approach may help reduce new HIV infections overall in the United States and around the world, the degree of impact at a population level will depend on many factors, including the real-world feasibility of scaling up intensive testing and care services in a broad range of settings, as well as the ability for individuals to maintain high levels of drug adherence over time.

However, HIV-positive people cannot assume they are not infectious simply because they are already on treatment medications. It is critical that individuals maintain close contact with their healthcare providers, in order to monitor viral load, and to maintain consistent treatment and care services over time."

Please read the entire statement.

And, read more about the study on NIAID's website. For additional information about this study, see the Questions and Answers. Visit the NIAID HIV/AIDS Web portal for more information about NIAID's HIV/AIDS research.


Weblink: http://blog.aids.gov/2011/05/research-update-treating-hiv-infected-people-with-antiretrovirals-protects-partners-from-infection-cdc-statement.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+aids%2Fgov+%28Blog.AIDS.gov%29


作者:Miguel Gomez

美国国家卫生研究院(NIH)近期发布的大型临床研究指出,在免疫系统相对健康的状况下,口服抗逆转录病毒药物能够使艾滋病毒携带者对其性伴侣传播病毒的风险降低。

美国疾病控制中心(CDC)主任也表示:"这些研究结果对艾滋预防工作发展的一大步,帮助世界各地的病患了解自身感染情况并接受艾滋预防、关爱和治疗服务。这一切都是美国疾病控制中心艾滋预防战略的关键组成部分。同时这也提醒我们艾滋检测和治疗普及的紧迫性,抗逆转录病毒治疗正逐渐成为艾滋预防战略的重要组成部分,预防和治疗是不可分割的。

这一研究发现为艾滋防治工作带来希望,美国以及世界其它地区新增艾滋感染者人数将有可能降低。特定群体的受影响程度取决于很多因素,其中包括在各种各样的环境中增加检测和关爱服务的现实性与可行性,以及病患个体长时间服用药物的可能性。

然而,艾滋检测呈阳性的患者并不能因已开展治疗而轻易地认为自身不具有传染的可能性。病患与治疗易购保持紧密的联系至关重要,以确保对病毒量得监控,以及保持持久的治疗。"

声明全文请参考:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2011/Pages/HPTN052.aspx

相关问题与回答请参考:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/QA/Pages/HPTN052qa.aspx

了解更多研究请登录美国国家过敏症与传染病研究中心(NIAID)网站:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/Pages/Default.aspx


Asia Report 翻译

原文链接:http://blog.aids.gov/2011/05/research-update-treating-hiv-infected-people-with-antiretrovirals-protects-partners-from-infection-cdc-statement.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+aids%2Fgov+%28Blog.AIDS.gov%29

    亚太妇女资源和研究中心(ARROW--The Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women)和本地合作机构共同致力于积极地、持续地倡导与研究工作,监督本地区各国政府实现在世界人口与发展行动项目(ICPD)大会上的承诺。该指数数据库运用79个国家的指数来跟进各国在实施ICPD会议有关生育健康与权力、性健康与权力、妇女赋权和健康投资等项目的发展情况与趋势。ICPD+14监测项目集合了亚洲地区12个国家22个合作机构共同努力的结果。最后呈现出性、生殖健康与权力指数数据库以供相关利益群体分享与交流。


Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Database of Indicators

   The Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW) and her partners in the region, have actively and consistently monitored the commitment of governments in the region towards fully implementing the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Programme of Action. The present Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Database uses a set of 79 cross-country critical indicators, and measures progress and marks trends towards ICPD implementation in the areas of reproductive health, reproductive rights, sexual health, sexual rights, women's empowerment and health financing. The ICPD+15 monitoring project is a collaborative monitoring partnership with 22 partners(women's NGOs and research and academic organizations), across 12 countries in the Asian region.


详情请见:http://www.srhrdatabase.org/


Asia Report 编译


机构: 亚太妇女资源和研究中心(ARROW--The Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women


报告:

妇女与艾滋项目的捐助机构索引

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世界妇女与艾滋联合会(GCWA)制作了一份妇女与艾滋项目的捐助机构索引,该索引能帮助致力于发女权利、性别平等、艾滋相关问题的机构发展壮大网络、增加项目资金渠道。

The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS is pleased to share with its members a new donor mapping on women and AIDS. This has been developed as a tool to facilitate the fundraising efforts of those networks and organizations committed to working on issues of women's rights, gender equality and HIV. We hope you will find it useful!

更多阅读(PDF download)>>


Asia Report 编译


机构: The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS (GCWA)--世界妇女与艾滋联合会


 

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