公共卫生

30TH ANNIVERSAR​Y OF THE FIRST REPORTED CASES OF AIDS


STATEMENT OF ANTHONY S. FAUCI, M.D., AND JACK WHITESCARVER, PH.D.,
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH, ON THE 30TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FIRST REPORTED CASES OF AIDS

On June 5, 1981, an article concerning five previously healthy, young gay men in Los Angeles diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, an infection that usually appears only in individuals with substantial immune system damage, appeared in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, a publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Soon more cases like these appeared, at first mainly in gay men, but then also in injection drug users, hemophiliacs and other recipients of blood and blood products, heterosexual men and women, and babies who acquired the infection from their mothers during birth or breastfeeding. We and our colleagues quickly began to confront the reality of a deadly new disease that would change the world. The disease ultimately would be referred to as AIDS.

Thirty years later, we are gratified by the progress that has been made in understanding, treating and preventing HIV/AIDS. We could not have imagined these advances during the early days of AIDS, when all we could do was provide palliative care to waves of dying patients. Whereas survival was once measured in weeks or months from the time of diagnosis, today, the critical discovery of antiretroviral drugs and their use in combination regimens has resulted in greatly improved life expectancy -- decades, rather than months -- for many HIV-infected people who have access to these medicines and adhere to treatment.

We take pride in the contributions of NIH-supported scientists who have been central to the investigation of the HIV disease process, the development of new therapies for HIV/AIDS and the design and validation of methods of HIV prevention. NIH scientists played a key role in demonstrating that HIV causes AIDS and in developing a diagnostic test for the virus. The ability to test the blood supply for HIV has nearly eliminated the risk of HIV transmission through blood transfusion.

NIH has supported basic and clinical research that provided pivotal data for many of the more than 30 drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat HIV infection, as well as for strategies to address its associated opportunistic infections, malignancies and clinical complications. Clinical trials funded by NIH also have helped determine the most effective combinations of these drugs to slow or halt the progression of HIV disease. Additionally, NIH-supported studies were instrumental in designing effective strategies to virtually eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission in developed nations and to dramatically reduce HIV transmission from an infected mother to her newborn or nursing child in the developing world. Many of these clinical trials were designed with the involvement and advice of HIV-affected communities, establishing a model for the conduct of clinical trials for other diseases.

NIH-supported, large-scale clinical trials have resulted in other notable achievements in HIV prevention. These studies sought answers to questions of critical importance to the global public health community. They proved that medically supervised adult male circumcision <http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2006/Pages/AMC12_06.aspx> more than halves the risk of female-to-male sexual HIV transmission; that needle and syringe exchange programs can reduce HIV transmission without increasing injection drug use; that a vaccine <http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2009/pages/thaivaxstudy.aspx> can achieve modest protection against HIV infection; and that taking an antiretroviral drug daily <http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2010/Pages/iPrEx.aspx> can reduce the risk of HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men.

Most recently, an NIH-funded clinical trial <http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2011/Pages/HPTN052.aspx> demonstrated that an HIV-infected individual can dramatically reduce the risk of transmitting the virus to an uninfected heterosexual partner by starting treatment when his or her immune system is relatively healthy. NIH also helped train the scientists and establish the infrastructure for an important clinical trial funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development showing that a vaginal gel containing an anti-HIV drug can help protect women from HIV infection. These multiple achievements are important because it is clear that controlling -- and ultimately ending -- the HIV/AIDS pandemic will require a combination of scientifically proven HIV prevention tools.

As gratified as we are by these accomplishments, we are sobered by some grim realities and remaining challenges. Despite the global public health community's best efforts to prevent new infections, 2.6 million people around the world became newly infected with HIV in 2009 alone. In developing nations, only about one-third of the 15 million people who need anti-HIV drugs have access to them. In addition, a growing proportion of patients receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy are experiencing treatment failure, drug toxicities, side effects and drug resistance. In this regard, recent studies have noted an increased incidence of malignancies, cardiovascular and metabolic complications and premature aging associated with long-term HIV disease or antiretroviral therapy.

NIH research will continue to address these issues as well as the causes of HIV-related health disparities, their role in disease transmission and acquisition, and their impact on treatment access and effectiveness. These include disparities among racial and ethnic populations in the United States; disparities between developed and resource-constrained nations, and disparities based on gender, age, or sexual identity. NIH research also will continue to play a critical role in providing the scientific foundation to achieve the goals of the President's National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Among the important scientific challenges that remain are the development of a safe and effective vaccine that can take its place among the combination of prevention tools as well as the possibility of curing at least a proportion of HIV-infected individuals.

The HIV/AIDS pandemic will remain one of the most serious public health crises of our time until better, more effective and affordable prevention and treatment regimens are developed and universally available. As the single largest public funder of HIV/AIDS research in the world, NIH is committed to advancing a comprehensive program of basic, clinical, translational and behavioral and social science research toward controlling and ultimately ending this modern plague. In memory of the patients, friends, loved ones and colleagues we have lost over these three decades, we wholeheartedly embrace this responsibility and opportunity knowing that history will judge us as much for what we accomplish during the coming years as for what we have achieved thus far.

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci is the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases. Dr. Jack Whitescarver is the NIH associate director for AIDS research and the director of the NIH Office of AIDS Research.

NIAID conducts and supports research -- at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide -- to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID Web site at <http://www.niaid.nih.gov/ >.

The Office of AIDS Research, a part of the Office of the NIH Director, coordinates the scientific, budgetary, legislative, and policy elements of the NIH AIDS research program.   OAR sets scientific priorities, enhances collaboration, and ensures that research dollars are invested in the highest priority areas of scientific opportunity that will lead to new tools in the global fight against AIDS.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.
美国国家卫生研究院(NIH)医学博士Anthony S. Fauci、博士Jack Whitescarver为艾滋三十周年发表讲话。

    1981年6月5日,三名来自洛杉矶的年轻男同性恋者被诊断出患有卡氏肺囊虫肺炎,这种疾病通常只有在病患免疫体遭受破坏时才会感染,该病例报告发布于美国疾病控制与防治中心期刊《发病率与死亡率周报》上。

    三十年过去了,我们对在认识、预防与治疗艾滋病方面所取得的进步非常欣喜。NIH所支持的科学家们在艾滋病毒调查、新型治疗方法的研发、以及设计和实验艾滋病预防方法等方面所取得的进步令我们深感骄傲。

    NIH支持的艾滋病预防大型临床实验取得了显著的成果。这些研究解答了很多全球卫生系统共同面临的问题,证明了在严格的医学监控下,对成年男性进行包皮环切手术能够降低一半以上由女性传染的艾滋病毒的风险(http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2006/Pages/AMC12_06.aspx );针头和注射器交换项目可以在不增加注射吸毒的基础上降低艾滋病毒的传播; 注射疫苗能在一定程度上防治艾滋感染(http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2009/pages/thaivaxstudy.aspx );每日服用抗逆转录药物能够降低男男性行为者感染艾滋的风(http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2010/Pages/iPrEx.aspx )。

    最近,NIH支持的临床研究(http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2011/Pages/HPTN052.aspx )表明,艾滋病毒感染者如果在自身免疫系统相对较健康的情况下开始治疗,其感染健康的异性性伴侣的可能性将大大降低。另外,NIH也协助美国国际开发署对其资助的临床研究人员进行培训,并提供研究所需的基础设施,该研究结果表明含有抗艾滋药物的阴道凝胶能够防治妇女感染艾滋。
 
    这些研究成果对我们的抗艾工作至关重要,它们证明了如果要控制、以及最终结束艾滋感染需要采用大量科学研究证实的艾滋预防方法。

    虽然我们对目前所取得的研究成果感到欣喜,但是我们也清醒地认识到残酷的现实,我们仍面临巨大的挑战。尽管全球卫生系统都尽全力预防新增感染,2009年全球仍有2600万新增感染者。在发展中国家,1500万感染者中只有三分之一的患者能够获得艾滋治疗药物。另外,越来越多长期接受抗逆转录病毒治疗的患者正面临治疗失败、药物中毒、副作用以及抗药性等问题。因此,在长期艾滋疾病与抗逆转录病毒治疗的过程中,研究显示出越来越多关于恶性肿瘤、心血管与新陈代谢并发症、早衰等问题的案例。

    NIH研究将继续针对这些问题开展科研工作,同时也将对与艾滋病毒有关的健康隐患开展研究。在更好、更有效、更廉价的预防和治疗方案发明以及在全球范围内的推广之前,艾滋流行仍将是全球公共卫生系统面临的最严酷的危机之一。NIH将一如既往地致力于临床以及社会科学研究,为控制以及最终消灭这一现代瘟疫而努力。

    Anthony S. Fauci博士是NIH过敏症与传染病学部主管。Jack Whitescarver博士NIH艾滋研究部副主任以及NIH艾滋研究办主任。

    作为美国卫生与人力资源服务部的组成部门,美国国家卫生研究院(NIH)是美国医疗研究机构,旗下包括27个研究所与研究中心。NIH是美国主要的联邦研究机构,支持并开展大量基础的、临床的以及转化型研究,同时也致力于研究普通和罕见疾病的成因、治疗以及治愈方法。

更多信息请登录NIH官方网站www.nih.gov


    从HIV/AIDS被发现以及成为全球健康隐患至今已有整整三十年了。

    自第一例艾滋病案例于1981年6月5日被诊断至今,已有三千万人死于这种疾病。全球领导人于上周一集聚一堂,共同对艾滋问题进行回顾与展望。虽然最新的联合国报告指出全球抗击艾滋的努力有效地降低了新增感染率,尤其是在亚太地区效果显著,但本地区仍然非常脆弱。

主持人:Sen Lam
演讲者:联合国艾滋规划署,亚太区代理司长JaneWilson



Wilson:艾滋病毒携带者的数量保持稳定,相比较2001年,新增感染者的数量确实下降了20%。因此我认为这对我们来说是一个非常重要的讯息。通过为高危群体提供高质的治疗服务,艾滋病的流行程度锐减,这个巨大的改变是我们共同的努力的结果。

    柬埔寨是全世界八个能够实现全国80%人口获得ART(抗逆转录病毒治疗)普及治疗的国家之一,这是一个非常大的成就。

    泰国对母婴之间的病毒传播的预防覆盖率也达80%。印度所取得的成就更为巨大,特别是在南印度地区。总体来说,2001年至2009年间,全球新增感染率下降25%,而在印度这一数值超过50%。如果考虑到印度的人口比例,这就是一个非常重大的发现。我认为需要强调的是,所有的这些成就都是通过一点一滴积累起来的。你也许听说过在那些地区开展的很多大型项目,医疗服务的提供、与当地政府和社区之间所建立的强大的合作关系都对项目的成功起了关键的作用。

LAM: 那么你能不能简单地给我们介绍一下太平洋地区的情况?

WILSON: 太平洋地区的数据又有所不同。从2001年至2009年,艾滋病毒携带者的数量从2万8千人升至5万7千人。和亚洲相比较,这些数值并不高,但是对于本地区来说,这确实是一个不小的数字。对于某些社会来说,影响是巨大的。这个地区非常多样化。如果你从整体来看,巴布新几内亚是本地区艾滋流行度最高的国家,感染率达0.9%,但该数值目前日趋平稳,这是共同努力的成果。该区域艾滋感染主要通过性行为传播,特别是在巴布新几内亚。但同时我们也看到注射吸毒也是主要感染途径之一,尽管数值相对较小,但在某些社区和国家却造成很大的影响。

LAM:考虑到亚洲各国发展的不同程度,以及其它社会经济因素,我们是否可以做出这样的假设:即使我们取得很多成果,但该地区仍将非常脆弱?

WILSON: 这真是个非常好的问题,因为当我们谈论覆盖率这个问题时, 尽管整个区域治疗率达31%,东南亚地区更是达到43%,但是更为重要的是如何维持现有的治疗率,如何保持我们目前所取得的成果。总体来说,性工作者、注射吸毒者、男男性行为者以及跨性别者是最容易感染艾滋病毒的群体,我们必须保证艾滋预防和治疗项目的持续性。例如,目前很多国家正在商讨自由贸易协议,这将严重威胁到病患获得药品的途径,这些协议将对整个区域产生可怕的影响。

LAM:你并未提及社会和文化因素,亚洲很多国家都设有严格的反毒品和反同性恋法律,对于性工作的立场也非常严苛。这些因素是否对艾滋病毒感染者来说构成巨大的挑战呢?

WILSON:毫无疑问,这些因素产生的影响非常巨大。我认为各国政府正逐渐意识到这些问题。很多国家,例如中国、越南、印尼,已经开始对政策进行修改,美沙酮项目和针头交换项目正在各地大量展开。我觉得总体来说,公共卫生官员已认识到性工作是一项职业,从人类出现的那一天就一直伴随着我们。但还是有很多案例,在该地区一些国家仍然保留殖民时期遗留下来的法律。我们必须废除这些过时的法律和政策,以便让大家在区域能够自由地活动,使那些携带艾滋病毒的人能够不受歧视,自由地接受预防、治疗、关爱和支持服务。

LAM: 我知道在这些国家很多项目经费都来自外国援助,而非该国自己的财政。这将也是未来发展的趋势吗?

WILSON:这确实令人担忧,特别是在某些国家,例如越南正逐渐成为中等收入国家,该国一直都非常依赖海外捐赠,但将来也许无法获得相同的捐赠。如果病人开始进行抗逆转录病毒治疗,那该治疗必须保持一生,一旦停止病人的健康将受到危害。如果病人产生抗药性,但又必须服药,那么他们只能选择那些昂贵的二线药物。因此维持目前的抗逆转录病毒治疗的管制非常重要,保证每个病患都能持续治疗,这也是预防艾滋非常重要的方法。


Asia Report 翻译

原文链接: http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/connectasia/stories/201106/s3236705.htm




  Hanoi authorities on Tuesday allocated VND5 billion (US$243,000) for a program to crack down on prostitution.

  Half of the funding will support a rehab center to treat sex workers, including those addicted to drugs, and HIV-infected children.

  Money will also be spent on propaganda such as leaflets, newspapers and documents aiming to raise awareness of sex workers.

  Hanoi police department will also be supported to strengthen crackdown on secret brothels and prostitutes in public places.

  On May 12, the government unveiled on its website a five-year plan to reduce prostitution by an initial 40 percent by 2015.

  With a budget of VND629 billion ($30.5 million), the program looks to free communes and towns from prostitution and minimize harms on society.

  Rehab and healthcare centers, job training for former sex workers and public awareness are among the measures the government said will be taken to battle prostitution.


Weblink: http://www.thanhniennews.com/2010/Pages/20110601115436.aspx


  In 2010, the Population Services International (PSI) program, Sun Quality Health (SQH), and its sister network of village health workers, Sun Primary Health, performed more than 2.1 million client consultations in Myanmar. John Hetherington, who has managed the network since 2007, talked to CHMI (Center for Health Market Innovations) about how--in the second-poorest country in the Asia-Pacific region--SQH has assembled one of the broadest service packages of any social franchise network operating today in an attempt to provide high quality, well regulated priority health services to local people.


CHMI: You offer a wide range of services under the Sun Quality Health brand. How do you select the services the brand will include?
John Hetherington: With a backbone of 1200 doctors in more than 200 townships, we can be entrepreneurial. We first ask, is there a need not being met? And is there an opportunity for a network of providers to offer that service? In Myanmar, the largest health concerns - malaria, family planning, pneumonia, diarrheal disease, TB - are either too expensive to treat, or doctors don't provide the right quality service. As in many places, we started with reproductive health and family planning, where there is a natural fit for social franchising.

Why is it that so many social franchising programs start by offering family planning?

JH: I think family planning is unlike other services because everyone from 15-49 is potentially a client - meaning, they are theoretically all fertile -- and this makes it different than addressing diseases which require many more inputs to be efficient, targeting, testing, etc., particularly in Asia, where many of the big diseases tend to be concentrated epidemics. With FP, you have the potential to offer (almost) anyone you interact with something that can be of service to them. You have the potential for large scale impact without the precise geographical targeting that you would need to treat an epidemic.


Without using the media to market to clients, how does your franchise attract clients?

JH: Advertising for medical services is illegal. Here, as in many countries, there are lots of people who go to their local doctors when they are ill or think they are ill. Many of these doctors have practiced for 20-30 years without continuing medical education. These are the doctors we retrain, so [with their clients] we have a captive audience, in a way.
How do you set prices?

JH: We set prices in a way that they are not a barrier to the poorest person we want to reach in the given target. We make services available at a price people are expecting--50 cents to a dollar for a malaria treatment, versus the five to six dollars it would cost otherwise. If we were not subsidizing these services, doctors would not provide them, or they might give patients the wrong drugs--give an injection, for example.

Speaking of which, how do you ensure quality?
JH: Social franchising is more complex to manage than other channels of social marketing--you need higher levels of training, monitoring and supervision.

On our staff, we have close to 80 doctors that, on average, visit each of the 1200 clinics every six weeks. They observe service delivery and answer the franchisee doctors' questions. We also send mystery clients to assure that the level of service quality remains intact. We use vignettes in training.

These techniques ensure that [franchisees] are not gauging people with prices or giving the wrong treatment. However, we don't own these clinics. We hope the training around good hygiene, infection prevention, client relationships, and counseling improves overall practices, since we don't monitor health areas outside the SQH basket of services.

Is it difficult to get providers to participate?

JH: No - their business increases. Their reputation is better, they have more services to offer, and their customers can get an IUD for 50 cents instead of 50 dollars.
In Myanmar, the public sector is not able to serve the needs of most people; 80-90% of people go to the private sector for health care. This is not unique. The private sector, while used by everyone, is atrocious in most places. With proper management, however, it can be made to do less harm--and even do very good work.
I have had surrealistic conversations with some country officials or [global health policy makers] where someone asks [a policy maker], what is your national protocol for first-line treatment for malaria? Yet, if you look at the data, 99% of people go to a pharmacy and buy drugs off the shelf. Some have to have a philosophical shift to understand this.

Describe your relationship with the Myanmar government.

JH: There is always a give and take between an NGO and the government. We have a longstanding relationship with the government in Myanmar and some of our staff are former civil servants. [Officials] appreciate that we are improving the quality of services by providing continuing medical education where there is none, and reporting on treatments not captured by the national health management information system.
The health minister has also seen the impact of Sun Quality Health. It's not minor--it's providing something like 25% of all family planning services, and we are detecting and treating more than 12% of all TB cases nationally.
We heard you are now offering screening for cervical cancer, which is very unusual even though 80% of cases occur in the developing world.

JH: Our franchising director at the time, Dr. Nyo Nyo Mihn learned a couple of years ago at a medical quality conference funded by one of our donors that you can screen [for abnormal cells] with acetic acid and treat abnormal cells with cryotherapy using Co2 in low resource environment, all without electricity. PSI's innovations fund allows us to be entrepreneurial without massive amounts of money, so we are now beginning training.

Some people in the health ministry are concerned that private sector doctors should be doing something they consider to be a hospital service. But almost no one is doing cervical screenings anywhere, so again, there is a choice of doing nothing, or doing something in partnership with the health facilities that are actually being accessed by people.

We are also piloting a basic package of anti-retroviral therapy with 100 clients, which hasn't yet been done in social marketing.

You also provide TB screening and treatment.

JH: Starting this intervention in 2004 was our biggest gamble. A recent study showed that the TB prevalence in Myanmar is five to six times higher than what was previously estimated. Now, our franchise does more than 12% of all case detection and treatment in the country.

Recently, in a village meeting, a woman spontaneously came up to us in tears. She told us she had been dying from TB and the treatment she got from a government clinic wasn't working for her. A PSI health worker told her to go to a [Sun Quality Health] doctor. She said, 'I'm healthy now and you saved my life'. I was thinking, that's one person, and there are 17,000 people every year getting that service that would otherwise die, and give TB to eight other people.

Yet, you still have people outside the country saying you can't work ethically inside the country, and the regime here can also be xenophobic. We can negotiate between those two things--the government doesn't see [the program] as impinging on their sovereignty and the opposition doesn't see it as giving succor to the regime. This model would be interesting to use in other difficult political situations, perhaps in Zimbabwe.


Organization: the Population Services International (PSI)

Learn more about Social Franchising

Weblink: http://healthmarketinnovations.org/blog/2011/may/26/how-engage-private-sector-doctors-deliver-high-quality-and-affordable-priority-care


    PSI是全球顶级卫生与健康组织项目重点关注痢疾、儿童存活、艾滋、生育健康以及非传染疾病。PSI成立于1970年,成立之初主要利用商业营销策略改善生育健康问题。在PSI第一个15年中,机构主要致力于计划生育项目。1988年开展其第一个艾滋项目。1990年开始从事痢疾疾病的相关项目,并于2004年开展肺结核有关项目.

 

    PSI与公共和私营部门共同合作,同时也借助市场力量。机构为世界最脆弱人口提供拯救生命的药品、医疗服务以及行为改善心理辅导,帮助该群体获得更健康的生活。

 

官方网站:http://www.psi.org/

 

联络PSI在各国的办事处:

http://www.psi.org/about-psi/contact-us/country-program-offices

 

香港特别行政区政府 卫生署 艾滋病网上办公室


    二○一一年第一季,卫生署卫生防护中心共接获103宗感染爱滋病病毒(人类免疫力缺乏病毒)个案。自一九八四年以来,累积共发现4,935人受爱滋病病毒感染。

    卫生署卫生防护中心顾问医生(特别预防计划)黄加庆今日(五月二十六日)会见新闻界回顾本港的爱滋病情况,他说性接触仍然是最主要的爱滋病病毒传播途径。

    黄加庆医生提醒市民正确使用安全套进行性行为,以减低感染爱滋病病毒的机会。

    他说:「爱滋病(AIDS)是由人类免疫力缺乏病毒(HIV)所引致的。如没有接受治疗,半数的爱滋病病毒感染者会于十年内发病为爱滋病患者。」

    「曾有不安全性行为的人士应致电卫生署爱滋热线2780 2211,预约免费、不记名、保密的爱滋病病毒抗体测试。」

    在本季的103宗爱滋病病毒感染个案中,22人透过异性性接触受感染,41人透过同性或双性性接触受感染,3人为注射毒品人士,2人透过输入血液/血制品感染,而35名感染者的传播途径因资料不足而暂时未能确定。

    在103名受爱滋病病毒感染人士中,77名为男性,26名为女性。

    本季的新诊断个案主要呈报来源包括:公共医院及诊所(37宗),私家医院及诊所(29宗)和卫生署爱滋病服务组(14宗)。

    季内共有13宗新增爱滋病个案,其中百分之六十九的爱滋病个案是透过同性或双性性接触感染。自一九八五年以来,本港共累积发现1,198宗爱滋病个案。

    肺囊虫肺炎是本季最常见的爱滋病并发症。       

    更多的爱滋病病毒感染/爱滋病资料可于政府的爱滋病网页找到,网址为www.aids.gov.hk



二○一一年五月二十六日(星期四)


原文链接:http://www.info.gov.hk/aids/sc/press/2011/110526.htm

    亚太妇女资源和研究中心(ARROW--The Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women)和本地合作机构共同致力于积极地、持续地倡导与研究工作,监督本地区各国政府实现在世界人口与发展行动项目(ICPD)大会上的承诺。该指数数据库运用79个国家的指数来跟进各国在实施ICPD会议有关生育健康与权力、性健康与权力、妇女赋权和健康投资等项目的发展情况与趋势。ICPD+14监测项目集合了亚洲地区12个国家22个合作机构共同努力的结果。最后呈现出性、生殖健康与权力指数数据库以供相关利益群体分享与交流。


Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Database of Indicators

   The Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW) and her partners in the region, have actively and consistently monitored the commitment of governments in the region towards fully implementing the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Programme of Action. The present Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Database uses a set of 79 cross-country critical indicators, and measures progress and marks trends towards ICPD implementation in the areas of reproductive health, reproductive rights, sexual health, sexual rights, women's empowerment and health financing. The ICPD+15 monitoring project is a collaborative monitoring partnership with 22 partners(women's NGOs and research and academic organizations), across 12 countries in the Asian region.


详情请见:http://www.srhrdatabase.org/


Asia Report 编译


机构: 亚太妇女资源和研究中心(ARROW--The Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women



    FHI是一所致力于健康与发展的全球性国际机构,机构通过开展以科学为基础的项目为全世界脆弱人口带来改变。机构拥有2500名来及健康、发展和管理领域的顶级的医生、科学家和技术专家。
从1971年开始,机构在125个国家与1400个机构合作开展工作,其中包括政府、各种组织机构、私营部门和社区。通过开展科学项目,FHI为成千上万的家庭带来福祉,并帮助合作过发展对抗疾病、贫穷和不公的有效方法。

我们的任务:
用可持续的方法提高全世界脆弱人口的生活质量。

我们所秉承的价值:
责任
质量
尊重
透明

网站:http://www.fhi.org/en/index.htm

联系方式:

总部
2224 E NC Hwy 54
Durham, NC 27713 USA
T 1.919.544.7040 
F 1.919.544.7261

华盛顿分部
4401 Wilson Blvd, Suite 700
Arlington, VA 22203 USA
T 1.703.516.9779
F 1.703.516.9781

亚太地区分部
19th Floor, Tower 3
Sindhorn Building
130-132 Wireless Road
Kwaeng Lumpini, Khet Phatumwan
Bangkok 10330, Thailand
T 66.2.263.2300
F 66.2.263.2114

媒体联络: media@fhi.org
出版物联络: publications@fhi.org
与FHI合作: contact@fhi.org
网站管理: webmaster@fhi.org
工作机会: CareerCenterSupport@fhi.org

      1957年国际探路者协会开始致力于实现妇女和家庭接受避孕和高质量生育健康护理的权利。

      国际探路者协会与政府、NGOs和社区合作,为需要帮助的群体提供避孕和相关服务,以保证安全的生育和家庭健康。在艾滋病毒高度流行的区域,我们提供艾滋预防和治疗服务,并将这些项目融入生殖健康和计划生育项目中。


联系方式:

总部

Pathfinder International
9 Galen Street, Suite 217
Watertown, MA 02472
USA
Tel: (617) 924-7200
Fax: (617) 924-3833

华盛顿办公室

Pathfinder International
Extending Services Delivery (ESD) Project
1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 700
Washington, DC 20036
USA
Phone: (202) 775-1977
Fax: (202) 775-1998/1988



 

加入邮件组: yzdc@asiacatalyst.org

asia-catalyst.png