Thailand's development has progressed considerably mainly due to the spread of capitalism. It has negative impacts on Thai society, especially families, which are the smallest unit in the society. A great number of families are being unavoidably affected, and family members are struggling to make a living in order to survive in society, and to keep pace with the expansion of consumerism which has become more fiercely competitive. Children and young people are increasingly more vulnerable, because their parents do not have tine to look after them or their parents have marriage problems, which eventually lead to divorces. As a result, children do not want to stay home, and decide to run away from home and wander around

It is estimated that Thailand has more than 30,000 homeless children.

 Chiang Mai is Thailand's 2nd largest city, and it is affected by impacts of capitalism as well. The fact that Chiang Mai is promoted as a tourist city has attracted those living in other provinces including homeless children to migrate to Chiang Mai. In addition, indigenous people living on the mountain or along the border are also migrating to Chiang Mai in hope to get a job. Children have been exploited by adults to make money; such as begging for money, selling flower or souvenirs to both Thai and foreign tourists. This can be seen at night on the street.

Volunteers for Children Development Foundation(VCDF), a Chiang Mai-based non-profit organization produced a video presenting the living condition of homeless children in Chiang Mai and the HIV infection among them, in order to raise the awareness of the promotion and protection of homeless children in Thailand.

Watch the video: http://vimeo.com/14732061

Organization: Volunteers for Children Development Foundation(VCDF)




    泰国儿童发展基金会(Volunteers for Children Development Foundation)拍摄并制作了纪录片,关注泰国清迈流浪儿童艾滋感染情况,希望借此唤起社会公众对该脆弱群体的关心和关注。


Asia Report 编译

机构:Volunteers for Children Development FoundationVCDF--泰国儿童发展基金会






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The Open Society Foundations

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  投资家和慈善家George Soros1984年成立开放社会基金会(The Open Society Foundations)。项目活动遍及美洲、欧洲、亚洲、非洲和南美洲。基金会通过推动建立完善的政治、法律和经济系统来塑造健全的公共政策。





Open Society Foundations
400 West 59th Street
New York, NY 10019, U.S.A.
Tel. 1-212-548-0600
Fax. 1-212-548-4600

When 20-year-old Jenna,a Kenyan of Asian descent, told her family two years ago she had tested positive for HIV, they forced her to terminate her pregnancy, forbad her to seek treatment and kept her locked in the house because of the shame she had brought on the family.

She did, however, go against their will and obtained life-prolonging antiretroviral medication at hospital. She now lives with another family who have taken her in and accepted her status.

"When I insisted on seeking treatment, my family chased me away," Jenna told IRIN/PlusNews. "For them it was good if I died slowly rather than shame them by seeking treatment and giving people an opportunity to know my status."

The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics estimates there are about 120,000 Kenyans of Asian - largely South Asian - origin, mainly living in the three major cities of Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu.

According to Anwar Ali Sharif, 36, the only Asian member of the National Empowerment of People Living with HIV/AIDS of Kenya (NEPHAK), stigma is the biggest impediment to Kenyan Asians accessing HIV/AIDS services.

"There is a lot of stigma among Kenyans of Asian origin. Many people who are HIV-positive are locked in the house because it is feared they will shame the family if it is known they are HIV-positive," he said.

He noted that while wealthy Asians could afford to visit private health facilities where no one need know their status, the stigma of visiting the clearly marked comprehensive HIV care clinics in public hospitals kept poorer Asians away from treatment.

Peter Cherutich, head of prevention services at the National AIDS and Sexually transmitted infections Control Programme, says there were no statistics on HIV prevalence among Kenyan Asians and no services tailored specifically to the Asian community as they were expected to receive services like any other Kenyan.

"As part of the Kenyan population, we expect them to access services like everyone [else]," he said. "It is not desirable to have specific surveys targeting certain racial groups unless it is clearly known that by virtue of their race they have certain biologic or behavioural or cultural factors putting them at greater risk for HIV. I don't think this is the case for this population."

But AIDS activists disagree, and say Asians should have messages targeted to their community the same way the government and its partners have tailored messages on HIV to different religious groups, age groups and in different languages for different ethnic communities.

"When you target people as a specific group - as is being done with 'most at-risk populations' - then you are able to effectively offer services to them in a way that suits their needs and uniqueness," said Nelson Otwoma, national coordinator for NEPHAK.

"It is important to remember that despite their close community, sexually they do relate to the native Kenyans and therefore they stand a chance of getting infected," he added. "They tend to rely on family-based networks [for information on HIV] which are... not properly capacitated to carry out such roles effectively."

"The government can use religious leaders or cultural forums, for example, to reach out to Kenyan Asians with HIV and AIDS information so that they are not left out," said NEPHAK's Sharif.

When he found out his own status, Sharif initially felt shut out by his community; slowly, however, he has taught his immediate family that they have nothing to fear from him and that HIV is not a death sentence.

"Now my immediate family is very supportive and I am even doing my degree course with their help," he said, adding that openness was the best way to address the high levels of stigma in his community.

"I do one-on-one talks with my peers and share with them information about HIV and try to [debunk] certain myths that they have, such as thinking HIV is manufactured in the lab or that condoms have holes," Sharif said. "If I could get other people of Asian origin like me to help, we would make a great impact."

Weblink: http://www.allheadlinenews.com/briefs/articles/90041679?Stigma%20keeps%20Asian%20population%20from%20accessing%20HIV%20services

Organization: the National Empowerment of People Living with HIV/AIDS of Kenya (NEPHAK)

    当20岁的肯尼亚亚洲后裔  Jenna两年前告诉家里人她艾滋检测呈阳性结果时,家里人立刻逼迫他堕胎,禁止她接受治疗,并且把她所在家中,因为她给全家人带来耻辱。然而,她强烈反对家人的意愿,并去医院接受延长生命的抗逆转录病毒药物治疗。现在她生活在另一个家庭中,他们了解她的处境并愿意接受她。


    作为肯尼亚全国艾滋病患者/病毒携带者赋权网络(NEPHAK)唯一一名亚洲成员,36岁的Anwar Ali Sharif表示污名化是肯尼亚亚籍居民接受艾滋相关服务的最大阻碍。他说:"肯尼亚的亚籍居民认为患病是一种极大的耻辱。由于害怕病情被他人知晓从而给家庭带来耻辱,很多病人被锁在家中。"他注意到虽然很多富裕的亚籍居民能够承担在私人诊所进行治疗,在那里个人资料能够得到更好地保护。但是对于经济条件较差的亚籍居民来说,公立医院的艾滋关爱诊所完全暴露了病人的身份,这让他们望而却步。

    国家艾滋与性传播疾病控制项目预防服务部总管Peter Cherutich表示,目前关于肯尼亚亚籍居民艾滋病毒流行情况的相关数据十分缺乏,也没有专们为亚籍社区设计的服务项目,他们和其他肯尼亚人接受相同的治疗。"作为肯尼亚一部分人口构成,我们希望亚籍居民接受和其他人一样的服务。"他表示:"除非有明显证据显示由于属于某一特定民族而所具有的某些生理和行文/文化因素导致更高的艾滋感染率,否则针对性的调查完全没有必要。我们认为亚籍居民不属于这种情况。"

    "NEPHAK国家协调人Nelson Otwoma表示,当特定的群体被设定为目标人群,例如'高危人群',那就能够根据该群体的需求和独特性设计特别的服务。"他补充道:"我们也需要记住虽然中国人在自己的社区内联系紧密,但并不排除他们与肯尼亚原著民发生性关系的可能性,因此,感染艾滋病毒的可能性是存在的。他们倾向于通过家庭关系网获得艾滋病毒的相关信息,可是这种渠道并不能发挥有效的作用。"


    "现在我对同伴们进行一对一的谈话,与他们分享艾滋病毒相关信息,并试图解开他们对该病毒的迷思,例如有些人以为艾滋病毒是在实验室制造出来的,还有人认为避孕套上有洞。" Sharif解释道:"如果可以推动其他像我一样的亚籍居民来服务他人,那么我们将带来巨大的改变。"

Asia Report 翻译


组织:NEPHAK--the National Empowerment of People Living with HIV/AIDS of Kenya

When Men Talk About Sex

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Sutthida Mallikaew

CHIANG MAI, Thailand, Mar 14 (IPS Asia-Pacific) - Tun Yo may not have known much about the ways of the world when he first came to work in one of the orange groves here seven years ago. After all, he was just a young boy of 14 at the time and one of the thousands of Burmese migrants who pour into Thailand every year.

Indeed, even when he finally got married, chances are he knew little or nothing about family planning or reproductive health. In fact, Tun Yo probably could have cared less.

That, however, is no longer the case. As one of the participants in a project aimed at Burmese male migrants here in Chiang Mai, Tun Yo recently attended a reproductive-health training workshop that has inspired him to discuss birth control methods with his wife. In addition, he says, he has become conscious of sexual hygiene and has learned about how to avoid getting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV and /AIDS.

"I think compared to women, men are not interested much in their health," comments Dr. Samphan Kahinthapong, Northern Region director of the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand (PPAT), which runs the project that received support from the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). "In fact, if men are responsible for their reproductive health, (that) will help both their health and their partner's."

It was this thinking that had PPAT creating and then implementing the project that began in June last year and ends in March 2011this month. Aside from offering training workshops that employ some of the migrants themselves as traineors, the project includes mobile clinics that provide contraceptives and treatment, as well as conduct tests for STDs.

In coming up with the project, PPAT had noted that most of the estimated two million Burmese migrants currently in Thailand have limited or no access to health services and education. Perhaps as a consequence, it said, the Burmese migrant community suffered from "early or unwanted pregnancies, early marriage, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs including HIV/AIDS), unsafe abortions, and violence against women".

The project aimed at providing information on sexual and reproductive health to 4,000 people and related services to 1,000 people. Male Burmese migrant workers at orange plantations, construction sites and elsewhere here in northern Thailand were the target beneficiaries.

It may have helped that most of these workers are Thai Yai, a Burmese ethnic minority in which relations between genders are more equal compared to those in other ethic groupstribes. Yet even then, some men admit to attitudinal changes after taking part in the project.

For instance, they say that they now don't think of household chores as being solely the burden of women, especially since both men and women these days work outside of the home.

One 37-year-old female worker also says, "It seemed to be embarrassing to talk about sex with my husband, but with the knowledge he now has, I tell him when I don't want to have sex because I have my period or when I'm so tired."

"He doesn't refuse when I ask him to buy my (sanitary pads)," she adds. "If we were in our home community in Mong Pan (in Shan state, Burma), I don't think he would buy them. The men there feel so embarrassed even to wash look at women's clothes."

Other male and female Burmese workers say that after undergoing training as part of the project, men seemed to respect and understand the women more. Participants showed more concern about having "quality" family life, they say.

Project officer Benjawan Srivichai also says increased understanding between the sexes is among the changes they have seen so far among the participants. "Males used to monopolise decision-making, but now they listen to each other more," she says. "We have heard more about men and women being equal. In addition, male and women workers have more access to reproductive-health services, condoms, and contraceptive pills."

PPAT is now thinking of extending the project's life span to ensure that such changes last. Dr. Samphan says as well that doing so would enable PPAT to expand the target beneficiaries to include boys. Moreover, he says, a long-term project would more suitable in addressing the seeming trend of early pregnancies.

Gender expert Niwat Suwanpattana meanwhile says that the PPAT project is a good initiative. But he thinks its focus is too limited to hygiene and contraception. Niwat, who is an advisor to the Thai Network Coalition on AIDS, says that he would like to see it move on to other directions, such as toward encouraging women to see sex beyond being a mere "duty" to their partners..

This is not the first time, though, that PPAT has had a project aimed at Burmese migrants in Chiang Mai. In recent years, it has provided reproductive-health services, but these were mainly for women migrants and consisted of gynaecological exams and pap smears, among others. P Yet while PPAT tends to have projects in the same areas for years, it has no problems with changing its programmes in accordance to the community's needs.

Migrant workers like Tun Yo couldn't be happier with its most recent initiative. Says Tun Yo: "I have never used condoms before, and now I know how to use it and that it is used not only for birth control but also for preventing HIV and other STDs."

"(My wife and I) are also discussing more about when we should have a baby," he says. According to Tun Yo, the project has made them realise there were many family birth control planning options they could choose from.



Orgnization: the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand (PPAT)

撰文:Sutthida Mallikaew




7年前当Tun Yo第一次来到泰国北部的桔园打工时也许并不太了解这个世界。那时他仅仅14岁,只是每年成千上万来到泰国打工的缅甸民工之一。事实上当他结婚后对计划生育和生殖健康也知之甚少,而且Tun Yo自身也不太关注这些问题。


然而,现在情况却出现了转变。Tun Yo最近参加了一个关于生殖健康的培训工作坊,这激发了他与妻子共同探讨避孕措施的兴趣。另外他还补充道现在他很注意性卫生,并且学习如何避免感染包括艾滋在内的性传播疾病。


泰国北部地区计划生育协会(PPAT)负责人Samphan Kahinthapong 博士表示:"我认为同女性相比,男性并不是那么关注他们的健康。"该协会接受来自国际计划生育联盟(IPPF)的支持,在泰北执行相关项目。"事实上如果男性对生殖健康负责,那么将有益于自身和伴侣的健康。"她说。












项目官员Benjawan Srivichai也表示目前与会者对两性有了更进一步的理解,一些变化正在发生。"男性过去总是掌握了更多决定权。但是现在他们开始愿意倾听女性的意见。"她说,"我们总能听到人们谈论男女平等。另外,现在男、女工人都能获得更多生殖健康方面的服务、安全套和避孕药。"


同时,社会性别专家Niwat Suwanpattana也提出虽然PPAT项目是一个很好的开始,但他认为项目太过于集中对保健和避孕问题的讨论。作为泰国艾滋网络联盟的顾问,Niwat希望项目的主题也能够的得到扩展,例如鼓励妇女享受性行为带来的快乐,而不仅仅把性看做"分内之事"。



Tun Yo一样的缅甸移民工人对于近期的项目活动非常满意。"我以前从来没用过避孕套,现在我不仅知道怎么用,而且还明白安全套可以预防艾滋病和其它性病。"他说:"我和妻子现在对何时生子这个问题也讨论的更多了。"Tun Yo表示这个项目让他们意识到有很多可以选择的避孕措施。

Asia Report翻译



机构:the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand (PPAT) 泰国计划生育协会



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