法律/公民权: April 2011的归档


Source: The Nation

The Public Health Ministry and its allies are implementing many measures to achieve the goals of zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero Aids-related deaths.

"For example, we have provided 16 to 30 hours of sex education to students each year. We have also provided friendly services to people in at risk groups including sex workers and homosexual men", Public Health Minister Jurin Laksanawisit said yesterday.

The three targets are in line with the guidelines set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.

AIDS patients are now receiving medical treatment at an earlier stage to make it easier to maintain their health. Antiretroviral drugs used to be prescribed only after the CD4 cell count dropped below 200, but now the threshold is 350.

Everyone and their families can get free tests for the immunodeficiency virus twice a year under the universal healthcare, social security and civil service medical care schemes.

The National Health Security Office's budget for free Aids treatment has been boosted to Bt2.99 billion this year from Bt2.7 billion last year.

"We have also provided free treatment to alien workers suffering from Aids," he said.

"To ensure zero discrimination, we don't allow employers to subject their employees to HIV blood tests before recruitment."

About 1.16 million people were estimated to be HIV positive last year, of whom 644,000 have died.

The country sees about 10,850 new HIV infections each year, 33 percent of which are in sexually active homosexual men and 28 percent in housewives contracting the virus from their husbands or regular sex partners.

Men contracting HIV from spouses accounted for about 10 percent of the new infections, while men contracting the virus from sex workers also accounted for 10 percent. Of the new infections 9 percent were found in people who injected drugs and 7 percent in those engaging in casual sex. Sex workers - mostly 15-49 years old - who were infected by male customers were 4 percent.

The ministry will host a national conference on Aids from March 29-31 at Impact Muang Thong Thani with the aim to help prevent the spread of HIV and build public awareness of Aids patients' rights. Some 3,500 people have registered to attend.

Asia Pacific Regional Consultation on Universal Access
Bangkok, Thailand, 29 March 2011

Call for Political, Financial & Operational Commitments


  30 years into the AIDS epidemic, in the spirit of activism and to honor all those lost to AIDS the participants at the Civil Society Pre-Meeting to the Universal Access Consultation held on 29 March 2011 in Bangkok, Thailand, taking into account the characteristics of the Asia Pacific's concentrated AIDS epidemics and the rights and needs of the Key Affected Populations of people living with HIV, men who have sex with men, sex workers, people who use drugs as well as the crosscutting populations including but not limited young people most at risk for HIV infection, women and girls, mobile and migrant populations, people with disability and prisoners call on the countries of the Asia Pacific to be accountable for by honouring and reinforcing commitments to achieve the Millennium Development Goal target of Universal Access HIV Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support for those who need it as agreed to in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001), the Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS (2006) and ESCAP Resolution 66/10. We urge the countries of the Asia Pacific to take strong position on FTA and come up with strategies to address FTA with different sectors and support different communities to understand the issues so that they can mobilize themselves and generate demands.
Furthermore, we urge all governments to:
·    Strive for higher levels of coverage for HIV treatment, care and support which includes treatment for co-infections of Hepatitis C and TB
·    Protect the manufacture, import or export of life-saving generic medicines
·    Provide human rights based effective HIV prevention interventions that are effective, appropriate and based on the needs of the country's epidemic
·    Develop and implement National Strategic Plans built around services that are human rights based ie equitable, accessible, affordable, comprehensive and responsive to the individual needs of people living with HIV, men who have sex with men, sex workers, people who use drugs and the cross-cutting populations including but not limited young people most at risk for HIV infection, women and girls, mobile and migrant populations, people with disability and prisoners taking into account relevant recommendations from the Commission on AIDS in Asia and the Commission on AIDS in the Pacific.
·    Develop and implement innovative financial mechanisms including a better use of $$ and greater allocations to the community organizations for advocacy and prevention efforts.
·    Eliminate the donor restrictions on some of the essential HIV programs, particularly related to sex work and people who use drugs such as the US pledge on sex work
·    Use indicators that are qualitative ie show impact not only quantitative
·    Act in equal partnership with civil society
·    Advocate that the Global Fund, UNAIDS and others measure grant performance not only based on target achievement and financial reports, but also on the quality of programs implemented. This should be reflected in the preamble.
I. PREVENTION: WHAT WILL IT TAKE FOR KAP TO GET TO 0 NEW HIV INFECTIONS?
National Governments, Donors and Key Affected Populations as well as Others from Civil Society must intensify efforts to meet the prevention and health needs people living with HIV, men who have sex with men, sex workers, people who use drugs and the cross-cutting populations including but not limited young people most at risk for HIV infection, women and girls, mobile and migrant populations by addressing the key economic, legal, social, cultural and technical barriers, which impede effective HIV responses, and to enhance the direct participation of these communities in national, regional and global HIV policy and programming.
1. Governments and donors must base their programming and fund allocations on evidence that is most effective and rights based
·    Ensure that HIV testing adheres to internationally accepted standards that include: informed consent, confidentiality, pre and post-test counseling, along with proper referral to treatment, care and support services
·    Eliminate compulsory detention centers
·    Promote and ensure access to harm reduction services
2. Establish a mechanism for partnership & discussion between lawmakers, civil society and governments.
3. Governments must use human rights approach in HIV prevention programs and policies and decriminalize the most effective HIV prevention strategies
4. Governments must support gender and sexual reproductive health and rights
·    Promote acceptance of sexual diversity in HIV programming and services including women and girls
·    Promote and facilitate the better linkages between sexual and reproductive health and HIV programming
·    Provide and ensure access to comprehensive and targeted sexuality education to young people who are in or out of school.
5. Be Accountable: Honour and reinforce the commitments made to achieve the Millennium Development Goal target of Universal Access HIV Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support for those who need it as agreed to in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001), the Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS (2006) and ESCAP Resolution 66/10.
II. TREATMENT: WHAT WILL IT TAKE TO GET TO 0 AIDS RELATED DEATHS?
People Before Profits: Access to Health and Medicine Must Be Taken Out of Profiteering Mentality. Medicines must be available, accessible, acceptable, and of good quality to reach ailing populations without discrimination throughout the world.
Treatment is prevention: Treatment access, including increased access to HIV, HCV, TB and STI diagnosis and treatment, remains foremost priority for an effective AIDS response. The paradigm of treatment has changed and treatment is now being recognized as one of the most effective prevention tools. Healthcare providers must make a radical change of taskshifting to communitybased sectors in terms of delivering a comprehensive package of treatment, care and support. Correspondingly, treatment literacy must also be scaled up to reflect this.
Implement WHO Guidelines for treatment and access to care: Advocate for more effective ARV regimens with less side effects such as phrasing out d4T and using tenofovir for first-line regimens in addition to sensitizing the public health sector to assure access to testing, treatment and care for key affected populations, young people most at risk, people living with HIV, and their sexual partners.
1. Sustainable access to effective/ affordable/ quality drugs, diagnostics and services has to be assured, including for co-infections Hepatitis C and TB, etc.
2. Ensure sustainable funding stream for community groups to enable independent, meaningful community-driven processes resulting in;
a) Integration of community organizations and organizations of people living with HIV as key members of teams offering testing, counseling, treatment and care; and other modes of service
b) Development of community-driven frameworks for treatment and care.
3. Treatment Literacy 2.0 (A new kind of treatment literacy is needed, to enable community groups to develop more powerful advocacy skills and strategies as part of the move towards implementation of Treatment 2.0)
a) Increase Access to data and knowledge
b) Influence Policy through advocacy
4. Be Accountable: Honour and reinforce the commitments made to achieve the Millennium Development Goal target of Universal Access HIV Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support for those who need it as agreed to in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001), the Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS (2006) and ESCAP Resolution 66/10.
III. LEGAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS: WHAT WILL IT TAKE TO GET TO ZERO HIV RELATED STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATION?
Governments must eliminate HIV-specific restrictions on entry, stay and residence to ensure that people living with HIV are not excluded, detained or deported on the basis of HIV status. National laws must stop discrimination and ensure the rights and needs of people living with HIV, men who have sex with men, sex workers, people who use drugs and the cross-cutting populations including but not limited young people most at risk for HIV infection, women and girls, mobile and migrant populations. Countries must eliminate HIV-related stigma and discrimination and reduce gender inequality as called for in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001) and the Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS (2006). When this review is complete there is a need to develop a clear costed way forward to achieve this commitment.
1. In line with international HR norms standards and commitments: Governments must harmonize existing national laws and policies with existing protective laws on education, labour, health etc to ensure UA to HIV prevention, care, treatment and support for KAPs and those most vulnerable people living with HIV, men who have sex with men, sex workers, people who use drugs and the cross-cutting populations including but not limited young people most at risk for HIV infection, women and girls, mobile and migrant populations, people with disability and prisoners.
2. Decriminalization of behaviours: demand the removal of punitive laws that criminalize behaviours, identities, populations and HIV exposure, transmission and the removal of travel restrictions based on HIV status.
3. Protection of rights: protect the individuals rights to privacy, confidentiality, age of consent, access to services and mechanisms for legal assistance, and individuals right to opt out to say yes or no to treatment.
4. Countering Stigma and Discrimination, and Gender based violence: uphold and protect the individual's rights to privacy, confidentiality, consent and access to SRH services and information, and gender equality.
5. Human rights should be mainstreamed into programs, and not as separate initiatives. Specific indicators to measure the promotion of human rights and mechanisms to redress violations of human rights.
6. Empowering community: by ensuring meaningful, active and full engagement in policy and programme development and implementation and monitoring.
7. Be Accountable: Honour and reinforce the commitments made to achieve the Millennium Development Goal target of Universal Access HIV Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support for those who need it as agreed to in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001), the Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS (2006) and ESCAP Resolution 66/10.
IV. FINANCE: WHAT WILL IT TAKE TO BUILD AN EFFECTIVE AIDS RESPONSE IN ASIA PACIFIC?
1. Ensure that funding is allocated to where it will have highest impact: Current funding should be refocused to where evidence shows it will have the greatest impact (e.g. effective community programs for young KAPs)
2. Shift focus from capacity building to strengthening community systems. "We have the capacity, we need to share our knowledge".
3. Ensure that national governments commit to funding their fair share of national AIDS responses. External sources are not sustainable.
4. Accountability for all
·    Service provision must be allocative, technically sound and efficient
·    Provide for proper monitoring and evaluation of organizations, programs and services
·    All private sectors should uphold Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
·    Accountability mechanisms for private sector HIV program deliverers should be strengthened and applied
5. Create mechanisms for civil society to participate in national planning processes, including budget.
6. There must be community driven, comprehensive package of services and programs for effective HIV response.
7. Be Accountable: Honour and reinforce the commitments made to achieve the Millennium Development Goal target of Universal Access HIV Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support for those who need it as agreed to in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001), the Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS (2006) and ESCAP Resolution 66/10.
  

Weblink:http://unaidspcbngo.org/?p=12780

Organization: UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board

方案协调委员会( PCB )是联合国艾滋病规划署的管理机构。它成立于1994年通过的决议联合国经济和社会理事会并在1996年1月开始运作。它由22个有投票权的成员国、10个发起机构和10位非政府组织代表组成(五个地区,每个地区一名代表和一名候补)。

联合国艾滋病规划署是第一个其管理机构中有公民社会的正式代表的联合国项目。联合国艾滋病规划署方案协调委员会( PCB )非政府组织代表团有三重作用,其中之一是客观独立地参加方案协调委员会的工作和决策。
方案协调委员会的职能是

根据《联合国艾滋病规划署方案协调委员会工作方法》中所述,"方案协调委员会( PCB )是所有与联合国艾滋病规划署的政策、战略、财务、监督和评估有关的项目问题的管理机构"。
方案协调委员会拥有以下主要职能:
•根据联大第47/199号决议的条款,为联合国艾滋病规划署确定大政方针和优先事项;
•审核和决定联合国艾滋病规划署的规划和执行情况。为此目的随时了解联合国艾滋病规划署各个方面的进展,考虑执行主任和发起组织委员会(CCO)提交的报告和建议;
•审核和批准由执行主任准备、发起组织委员会审阅的各财政期的行动计划和预算;
•审核执行主任的提案,批准联合国艾滋病规划署的财务安排;
•审核长期行动计划及有关的财政问题;
•审核联合国艾滋病规划署提交的经审计的财务报表
•就如何开展活动----包括主流化活动----支持联合国艾滋病规划署向发起机构提出建议;
•审核评估联合国艾滋病规划署在实现其目标上取得的进展的定期报告。

网站:http://unaidspcbngo.org/?lang=zh-hanshttp://unaidspcbngo.org/?lang=zh-hans

联络:

为迎接6月高级别会议,进展情况报告全面介绍了为帮助各国普及艾滋病毒防治服务、实现零艾滋病毒新增病例、防止歧视行为和消除艾滋病所致死亡所需的各种努力。

2011331,内罗毕讯----联合国秘书长潘基文今天发布的一份新报告称,在艾滋病流行30年后,在防治艾滋病方面所进行的投入正在产生效 果。题为"共同普及:努力实现零艾滋病毒新增病例、零歧视行为和零艾滋病所致死亡"的报告强调:全球艾滋病毒新增病例增长率正在降低,治疗覆盖面正在扩 大,全世界在减少艾滋病毒母婴传染方面大有进展。

2001年至2009年,有33个国家,包括22个撒哈拉以南非洲国家的艾滋病毒新增病例增长率下降了至少25%。 截至2010年底,在中低收入国家中有600多万人在接受抗逆转录病毒疗法。2009年,全球防止艾滋病毒母婴传染服务的覆盖面首次超过50%

报告强调指出,尽管近年来取得了一定的成就,但是成绩仍不稳固。每有一个人开始接受抗逆转录病毒疗法,就有两个人成为新的艾滋病毒感染者。每天有 7000人成为新的艾滋病毒感染者,包括1000名儿童。国家基础设施薄弱,资金缺乏,弱势人口受到歧视等因素仍然是防治艾滋病毒、护理和帮扶艾滋病毒患 者的障碍。

秘书长的报告是根据182个国家提供的数据撰写的,提出了五项重要建议,供将于201168日至10日召开的联大艾滋病问题高级别会议审议。
联合国新闻部及艾滋病规划署联合发布

"在此关键时刻,全世界的领导人可以借助这一独特的机会评价在全球防治艾滋病方面的成就和不足,"潘基文秘书长在肯尼亚首都举行的记者吹风会上说。"我们必须做出大胆的决定,借此显著改变艾滋病防治局面,帮助我们逐步实现新一代人免遭艾滋病毒困扰的目标。"

艾滋病已经流行30年,今天我们必须重振艾滋病防治工作,为在今后的岁月里取得成功奠定基础," 与潘基文一起参加报告发布活动的艾滋病规划署执行主任米歇尔·西迪贝说。"在预防艾滋病毒和提供抗逆转录病毒疗法方面成绩显著,但是,我们必须再接再厉, 不让人们感染病毒----现在比以往任何时候都需要进行一场预防艾滋病毒的革命。"

丽贝卡·奥玛·阿维提,一位携带艾滋病毒的母亲、非政府组织肯尼亚妇女对抗艾滋病协会实地协调员,在记者会上讲述了自己的故事。"受普及运动所赐,我的三个子女出生时都没有艾滋病毒,由于接受了治疗,我也得以看着他们长大,"她说。

动员起来,达成效果

联合国秘书长在报告中就如何加强艾滋病毒防治工作提出了五项建议:

  • 让年轻人发挥能量,发起一场预防艾滋病毒的革命;
  • 重整旗鼓,努力在2015年前普及艾滋病毒防治服务和为艾滋病毒患者提供的护理和帮扶服务;
  • 与各国一道,提高艾滋病毒方案的成本效益、效率和可持续性;
  • 促进妇女和女孩的健康、人权和尊严;
  • 确保在艾滋病毒防治方面相互负责,落实各项承诺。

秘书长呼吁所有利益相关者支持报告中所载的建议,通过落实这些建议实现六个全球目标:

  • 联合国新闻部及艾滋病规划署联合发布
  • 将艾滋病毒的性传播减少50%,包括重要人群,例如年轻人、男性同性恋者和性工作者;防止注射毒品所导致的任何艾滋病毒新增病例。
  • 消灭艾滋病毒母婴传播;
  • 将艾滋病毒携带者的结核病死亡率降低50%
  • 确保1300万艾滋病毒感染者得到治疗;
  • 将限制艾滋病毒携带者入境、逗留和居留的国家数目降低50%
  • 确保因艾滋病而成为孤儿和脆弱者的儿童获得平等的教育机会。

由于目前艾滋病毒救助所获得的国际资金自2009年以来首度出现了下降,该报告鼓励各国,包括有能力支付本国艾滋病毒防治费用的中低收入国家优先安排好艾滋病毒方案的资金。报告还强调必须共担责任及问责制的重要性,以确保今后若干年内艾滋病毒防治资源充足。


组织: 联合国艾滋规划署方案协调委员会

原文链接:http://unaidspcbngo.org/?p=12771〈=zh-hans


组织:

The Open Society Foundations

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  投资家和慈善家George Soros1984年成立开放社会基金会(The Open Society Foundations)。项目活动遍及美洲、欧洲、亚洲、非洲和南美洲。基金会通过推动建立完善的政治、法律和经济系统来塑造健全的公共政策。

 

网址:http://www.soros.org/

 

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Open Society Foundations
400 West 59th Street
New York, NY 10019, U.S.A.
Tel. 1-212-548-0600
Fax. 1-212-548-4600

When 20-year-old Jenna,a Kenyan of Asian descent, told her family two years ago she had tested positive for HIV, they forced her to terminate her pregnancy, forbad her to seek treatment and kept her locked in the house because of the shame she had brought on the family.

She did, however, go against their will and obtained life-prolonging antiretroviral medication at hospital. She now lives with another family who have taken her in and accepted her status.

"When I insisted on seeking treatment, my family chased me away," Jenna told IRIN/PlusNews. "For them it was good if I died slowly rather than shame them by seeking treatment and giving people an opportunity to know my status."

The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics estimates there are about 120,000 Kenyans of Asian - largely South Asian - origin, mainly living in the three major cities of Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu.

According to Anwar Ali Sharif, 36, the only Asian member of the National Empowerment of People Living with HIV/AIDS of Kenya (NEPHAK), stigma is the biggest impediment to Kenyan Asians accessing HIV/AIDS services.

"There is a lot of stigma among Kenyans of Asian origin. Many people who are HIV-positive are locked in the house because it is feared they will shame the family if it is known they are HIV-positive," he said.

He noted that while wealthy Asians could afford to visit private health facilities where no one need know their status, the stigma of visiting the clearly marked comprehensive HIV care clinics in public hospitals kept poorer Asians away from treatment.

Peter Cherutich, head of prevention services at the National AIDS and Sexually transmitted infections Control Programme, says there were no statistics on HIV prevalence among Kenyan Asians and no services tailored specifically to the Asian community as they were expected to receive services like any other Kenyan.

"As part of the Kenyan population, we expect them to access services like everyone [else]," he said. "It is not desirable to have specific surveys targeting certain racial groups unless it is clearly known that by virtue of their race they have certain biologic or behavioural or cultural factors putting them at greater risk for HIV. I don't think this is the case for this population."

But AIDS activists disagree, and say Asians should have messages targeted to their community the same way the government and its partners have tailored messages on HIV to different religious groups, age groups and in different languages for different ethnic communities.

"When you target people as a specific group - as is being done with 'most at-risk populations' - then you are able to effectively offer services to them in a way that suits their needs and uniqueness," said Nelson Otwoma, national coordinator for NEPHAK.

"It is important to remember that despite their close community, sexually they do relate to the native Kenyans and therefore they stand a chance of getting infected," he added. "They tend to rely on family-based networks [for information on HIV] which are... not properly capacitated to carry out such roles effectively."

"The government can use religious leaders or cultural forums, for example, to reach out to Kenyan Asians with HIV and AIDS information so that they are not left out," said NEPHAK's Sharif.

When he found out his own status, Sharif initially felt shut out by his community; slowly, however, he has taught his immediate family that they have nothing to fear from him and that HIV is not a death sentence.

"Now my immediate family is very supportive and I am even doing my degree course with their help," he said, adding that openness was the best way to address the high levels of stigma in his community.

"I do one-on-one talks with my peers and share with them information about HIV and try to [debunk] certain myths that they have, such as thinking HIV is manufactured in the lab or that condoms have holes," Sharif said. "If I could get other people of Asian origin like me to help, we would make a great impact."


Weblink: http://www.allheadlinenews.com/briefs/articles/90041679?Stigma%20keeps%20Asian%20population%20from%20accessing%20HIV%20services

Organization: the National Empowerment of People Living with HIV/AIDS of Kenya (NEPHAK)



NAIROBI, 4 April 2011 (PlusNews) - Progress towards an HIV-free generation has been slow, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said in the Kenyan capital, Nairobi, as he released a report on achievements in combating HIV and AIDS in the past three decades.

"It is time to take a hard look at where we stand today, but looking from where we have come from 30 years ago in the fight against HIV/AIDS, the world has made tremendous progress", he said.

"We are moving towards an HIV-free generation, albeit slowly, but to realize this, a lot more - like increased investment in the fight against HIV, and doing away with prohibitive laws that impede the fight against the disease - needs to be done," he said.

The report - Uniting for Universal Access: towards zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths - noted that the global rate of new HIV infections was declining, access to HIV treatment had increased, and there had been significant progress in reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

By the end of 2010, six million people in low- and middle-income countries were on treatment (up from 5.2 million in 2009), prevention of mother-to-child transmission services reached 50 percent coverage worldwide, and 33 countries - 22 in sub-Saharan Africa - recorded a 25 percent decline in new HIV infections.

"Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) presents the best opportunity for the world to realize an HIV-free generation, and more efforts must be put towards realizing this [goal]," said Michel Sidibe, Executive Director of UNAIDS.

Rebecca Auma, a Kenyan HIV-positive mother who gave birth to HIV-free triplets three years ago, said there was lack of such services, especially in rural areas.

"While I am here today to tell my story of giving birth to HIV free triplets... many mothers... have no access to the services I got. I was lucky, and world leaders must keep their pledges to provide funding for critical services such as PMTCT," Auma said.

Recommendations included revitalizing the push towards universal access to HIV prevention, treatment and care, making HIV programmes cost-effective, efficient and sustainable, promoting the health, dignity and rights of women and girls, and ensuring accountability.

The report cited weak national infrastructures, shortfalls in funding, and discrimination against vulnerable groups as major challenges.

"We will not meet our targets unless these bottlenecks are dealt with... We must increase funding to HIV programmes, and continue to fight discrimination against certain groups such as commercial sex workers," the Secretary-General noted.

The report, which will be discussed at the UN High Level Meeting in New York in June, was based on data submitted by 182 countries. 

文章发表日期: 31 三月, 2011
上传日期: 31 三月, 2011

新闻发布稿
联合国秘书长概述关于实现2015年防治艾滋病目标的新建议

为迎接6月高级别会议,进展情况报告全面介绍了为帮助各国普及艾滋病毒防治服务、实现零艾滋病毒新增病例、防止歧视行为和消除艾滋病所致死亡所需的各种努力。
2011年3月31日,内罗毕讯----联合国秘书长潘基文今天发布的一份新报告称,在艾滋病流行30年后,在防治艾滋病方面所进行的投入正在产生效果。题为"共同普及:努力实现零艾滋病毒新增病例、零歧视行为和零艾滋病所致死亡"的报告强调:全球艾滋病毒新增病例增长率正在降低,治疗覆盖面正在扩大,全世界在减少艾滋病毒母婴传染方面大有进展。
2001年至2009年,有33个国家,包括22个撒哈拉以南非洲国家的艾滋病毒新增病例增长率下降了至少25%。截至2010年底,在中低收入国家中有600多万人在接受抗逆转录病毒疗法。2009年,全球防止艾滋病毒母婴传染服务的覆盖面首次超过50%。
报告强调指出,尽管近年来取得了一定的成就,但是成绩仍不稳固。每有一个人开始接受抗逆转录病毒疗法,就有两个人成为新的艾滋病毒感染者。每天有7000人成为新的艾滋病毒感染者,包括1000名儿童。国家基础设施薄弱,资金缺乏,弱势人口受到歧视等因素仍然是防治艾滋病毒、护理和帮扶艾滋病毒患者的障碍。
秘书长的报告是根据182个国家提供的数据撰写的,提出了五项重要建议,供将于2011年6月8日至10日召开的联大艾滋病问题高级别会议审议。
联合国新闻部及艾滋病规划署联合发布

"在此关键时刻,全世界的领导人可以借助这一独特的机会评价在全球防治艾滋病方面的成就和不足,"潘基文秘书长在肯尼亚首都举行的记者吹风会上说。"我们必须做出大胆的决定,借此显著改变艾滋病防治局面,帮助我们逐步实现新一代人免遭艾滋病毒困扰的目标。"
艾滋病已经流行30年,今天我们必须重振艾滋病防治工作,为在今后的岁月里取得成功奠定基础," 与潘基文一起参加报告发布活动的艾滋病规划署执行主任米歇尔·西迪贝说。"在预防艾滋病毒和提供抗逆转录病毒疗法方面成绩显著,但是,我们必须再接再厉,不让人们感染病毒----现在比以往任何时候都需要进行一场预防艾滋病毒的革命。"
丽贝卡·奥玛·阿维提,一位携带艾滋病毒的母亲、非政府组织肯尼亚妇女对抗艾滋病协会实地协调员,在记者会上讲述了自己的故事。"受普及运动所赐,我的三个子女出生时都没有艾滋病毒,由于接受了治疗,我也得以看着他们长大,"她说。
动员起来,达成效果
联合国秘书长在报告中就如何加强艾滋病毒防治工作提出了五项建议:

让年轻人发挥能量,发起一场预防艾滋病毒的革命;

重整旗鼓,努力在2015年前普及艾滋病毒防治服务和为艾滋病毒患者提供的护理和帮扶服务;

与各国一道,提高艾滋病毒方案的成本效益、效率和可持续性;

促进妇女和女孩的健康、人权和尊严;

确保在艾滋病毒防治方面相互负责,落实各项承诺。
秘书长呼吁所有利益相关者支持报告中所载的建议,通过落实这些建议实现六个全球目标:
联合国新闻部及艾滋病规划署联合发布

将艾滋病毒的性传播减少50%,包括重要人群,例如年轻人、男性同性恋者和性工作者;防止注射毒品所导致的任何艾滋病毒新增病例。

消灭艾滋病毒母婴传播;

将艾滋病毒携带者的结核病死亡率降低50%;

确保1300万艾滋病毒感染者得到治疗;

将限制艾滋病毒携带者入境、逗留和居留的国家数目降低50%;

确保因艾滋病而成为孤儿和脆弱者的儿童获得平等的教育机会。
由于目前艾滋病毒救助所获得的国际资金自2009年以来首度出现了下降,该报告鼓励各国,包括有能力支付本国艾滋病毒防治费用的中低收入国家优先安排好艾滋病毒方案的资金。报告还强调必须共担责任及问责制的重要性,以确保今后若干年内艾滋病毒防治资源充足。
有关上述报告和艾滋病毒问题高级别会议的详情可见下列网站:unaids.org/en/aboutunaids/unitednationsdeclarationsandgoals/2011highlevelmeetingonaids/

联系人
艾滋病规划署日内瓦办事处 | 苏菲·巴顿-诺特| +41 22 791 1697 | bartonknotts@unaids.org
艾滋病规划署内罗毕办事处| 赛拉·斯图加特| +41 79 467 2013 | stewarts@unaids.org
艾滋病规划署内罗毕办事处 | 埃斯特·加蒂里-基莫索| +254 20 762 6718 | gathirikimothoe@unaids.org
纽约总部联合国新闻部| 维克拉姆·苏拉| +1 212 963 8274 | sura@un.org
纽约总部联合国新闻部 | 普拉加蒂·帕斯卡莱| +1 212 963 6870 | pascale@un.org

原文链接:http://www.msmgf.org/index.cfm/id/11/aid/3309/langID/6/
              (PDF)http://www.msmgf.org/index.cfm/id/11/aid/3309/langID/6/

扩展阅读: (PLUS NEWS) HIV/AIDS: Moving slowly towards an HIV-free generation

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MPlus+

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MPlus+泰国清迈的本土NGO,在USAIDS的资助下于2004年成立,主要致力于提高男男性行为群体(MSM)的性健康,关注的群体为男性性工作者(同性或异性恋者)。

MPlus+通过工作坊和会议发展网络联系为男性性工作者提供英语培训;在经常发生男男性行为的场所(例如公园、公共厕所、男同桑拿、男同酒吧、男同按摩院、清迈体育馆、宾河河岸)发放安全套和资料。机构也为清迈大学学生和中学生提供防艾教育,主要关注安全性行为、减少对持不同性取向人群的污名化和歧视、如何正确使用安全套等为题。在机构医护中心内提供面对面、电话以及即将运行的网络在线咨询服务。

联络方式:

Pongthorn Chanlearn 先生

电话/传真:+66 53 814 487

移动电话:+66 81 595 4994

地址:9/2 Samlan Rd., Soi 6T. Prasing A. Muang Chiang Mai, Thailand 50200

Email: MPLUS_MSM@HOTMAIL.COM

          PONGTHORN_TOR@MPLUSTHAILAND.COM

网址:http://www.mplusthailand.com/

HIV testing is an important part of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention and treatment, if it is provided in a way that respects basic human rights. In order to reap the benefits of HIV testing, individuals must freely consent to testing; counseling must be provided before and after testing; and test results must be kept confidential. Moreover, testing should always be linked to programs that provide people who test positive with treatment, care, and support. Governments, health care providers, and program implementers should create a supportive environment that protects people who are HIV-positive from stigma, discrimination, and other negative consequences.

However, there is growing evidence from several countries that pregnant women are being tested for HIV without their consent, adequate counseling, or links to services; couples are forced to take HIV tests before being allowed to marry; and prisoners, people who use drugs, and sex workers are being forced by police to submit to HIV tests against their will.

Such HIV testing practices are taking place largely without any assessment of the human rights implications. To address these trends, the Open Society Foundations have supported researchers and civil society advocates to examine and document the impact of HIV testing policies and practices, and to advocate for methods that uphold human rights and improve health outcomes.

The publications below look at UNAIDS and WHO guidance on HIV testing, as well as local and international laws, and provide information on the impact of HIV testing policies on women and marginalized groups.


HIV Testing and Human Rights

HIV Testing of Pregnant Women and Couples

Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Prevention




Weblink: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/health/focus/law/articles_publications/publications/hiv-testing-20100517

Orgnization: Open Society Foundations

Statement by

Ambassador Eileen Chamberlain Donahoe

U.S. Representative to the Human Rights Council
on the "Joint statement on ending acts of violence and related human rights violations based on sexual orientation & gender identity"

"We are proud to have taken a leading role on the statement issued today at the Human Rights Council, signed by 85 countries, entitled "Ending Acts of Violence and Related Human Rights Violations Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity."  Human rights are the inalienable right of every person, no matter who they are or who they love.  The U.S. government is firmly committed to supporting the right of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals to lead productive and dignified lives, free from fear and violence.  We look forward to working with other Governments from all regions and with civil society to continue dialogue at the Council on these issues."
The full text of the statement delivered at the Human Rights Council on March 22, 2011 by the representative of Colombia on behalf of 84 countries is provided below:

Joint statement on ending acts of violence and related human rights violations based on sexual orientation & gender identity

Delivered by Colombia on behalf of: Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, the Central African Republic, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala,  Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the former-Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mexico, Micronesia, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu, the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ukraine, Uruguay,  Vanautu and Venezuela

1.       We recall the previous joint statement on human rights, sexual orientation and gender identity, presented at the Human Rights Council in 2006;

2.       We express concern at continued evidence in every region of acts of violence and related human rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity brought to the Council's attention by Special Procedures since that time, including killings, rape, torture and criminal sanctions;

3.       We recall the joint statement in the General Assembly on December 18, 2008 on human rights, sexual orientation and gender identity, supported by States from all five regional groups, and encourage States to consider joining the statement;

4.       We commend the attention paid to these issues by international human rights mechanisms including relevant Special Procedures and treaty bodies and welcome continued attention to human rights issues related to sexual orientation and gender identity within the context of the Universal Periodic Review. As the United Nations Secretary General reminded us in his address to this Council at its Special Sitting of 25 January 2011, the Universal Declaration guarantees all human beings their basic rights without exception, and when individuals are attacked, abused or imprisoned because of their sexual orientation or gender identity, the international community has an obligation to respond;

5.       We welcome the positive developments on these issues in every region in recent years, such as the resolutions on human rights, sexual orientation and gender identity adopted by consensus in each of the past three years by the General Assembly of the Organization of American States, the initiative of the Asia-Pacific Forum on National Human Rights Institutions to integrate these issues within the work of national human rights institutions in the region, the recommendations of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the increasing attention being paid to these issues by the African Commission on Human and People's Rights, and the many positive legislative and policy initiatives adopted by States at the national level in diverse regions;

6.       We note that the Human Rights Council must also play its part in accordance with its mandate to "promote universal respect for the protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without discrimination of any kind, and in a fair and equal manner" (GA 60/251, OP 2);

7.       We acknowledge that these are sensitive issues for many, including in our own societies. We affirm the importance of respectful dialogue, and trust that there is common ground in our shared recognition that no-one should face stigmatisation, violence or abuse on any ground.  In dealing with sensitive issues, the Council must be guided by the principles of universality and non-discrimination;

8.       We encourage the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to continue to address human rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity and to explore opportunities for outreach and constructive dialogue to enhance understanding and awareness of these issues within a human rights framework;

9.       We recognise our broader responsibility to end human rights violations against all those who are marginalised and take this opportunity to renew our commitment to addressing discrimination in all its forms;

10.  We call on States to take steps to end acts of violence, criminal sanctions and related human rights violations committed against individuals because of their sexual orientation or gender identity, encourage Special Procedures, treaty bodies and other stakeholders to continue to integrate these issues within their relevant mandates, and urge the Council to address these important human rights issues.

 

      联合国人权委员会成员国由经社理事会按区域分配原则选举产生。该委员会初建时只有18个成员国,1979年扩大为43个。1992年第48届会议起,成员增至53个(其中亚洲12个、非洲15个、拉美和加勒比地区11个、东欧5个、西欧和其他国家10个),任期三年。

      人权委员会是联合国系统审议人权问题的最主要机构之一,它的主要职责是:根据《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则,在人权领域进行专题研究、提出建议和起草国际人权文书并提交联合国大会


联合国人权问题相关文件和决议:

http://www.un.org/chinese/hr/expression/hrcomrep.htm

http://www.un.org/chinese/hr/expression/hrcomres.htm


网站:http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/



美国大使艾琳·张伯伦·多霍纳发表声明

人权委员会美国代表发表《结束对基于性取向和性别认同的人权及其它形式的侵犯的联合声明》

      "今天,人权委员会发布了由85国共同签署的《结束对基于性取向和性别认同的人权及其它形式的侵犯宣言》,我们很骄傲地成为了该宣言第一批见证人。"
      
人权是每个人不可分割的一部分权利,无论他们是谁或他们与谁相爱。美国政府在此为实现男、女同性恋、双性恋和变性者(LGBT)的权利而做出承诺,支持他/她们多样化而有尊严的生活,远离任何恐惧与暴力。我们希望与世界其它地区的国家政府以及公民社会就此问题继续开展对话。

2011322,由哥伦比亚代表其它84个签署国发表人权委员会声明。


《结束对基于性取向和性别认同的人权及其它形式的侵犯的联合声明》签署国:

阿根廷、澳大利亚、奥地利、比利时、巴西、加拿大、中非共和国、智利、古巴、捷克共和国、丹麦、斐济、芬兰、法国、德国、希腊、匈牙利、冰岛、爱尔兰、意大利、日本、墨西哥、蒙古、尼泊尔、荷兰、新西兰、挪威、波兰、葡萄牙、卢旺达、南非、西班牙、瑞士、瑞典、泰国、美国、英国和北爱尔兰等。

 

Asia Report 摘译

原文链接:http://geneva.usmission.gov/2011/03/22/lgbtrights/


机构:UN Human Rights Council 联合国人权委员会






 

男孩遇见男孩,两人坠入爱河。男孩为取悦他的同性恋人尝试变性。之后男孩对自己的决定很后悔,于是回到家乡和另一个女孩成为恋人。


      这是马来西亚第一步讲述男同之爱的电影 Dalam Botol (《在瓶中》)的情节,在以穆斯林为主的马来西亚社会,同性性行为以及流行文化对同性恋的描述都是禁忌,因此该影片的上映引起了巨大的反响。

      影片将于下周二首映,但在此之前已激起很多宗教团体的不满。保守党派泛马来西亚穆斯林党(Pan-Malaysian Islamic party)的青年团领导人称该影片对同性恋文化的宣传让他感到"震惊"。

      马来西亚审查委员会建议影片制作人、同时也是马来西亚的小说家Raja Azmi Raja Sulaiman 剪掉一个裸露镜头,并删除电影标题中的单词Anu,在马来语中,Anu表示男性生殖器官。Raja Azmi表示:"我不明白这有什么值得大惊小怪的,这只是一个爱情故事,我并没做错什么事。"

      影片将在全国52个影院中放映。该影片成本花费大约为20.2 万欧元,以马来西亚的标准来说,并不能算大成本制作。电影的构想基于Raja Azmi的一个朋友变性的真实故事。她说:"如果我要通过电影来传达一个信息,那就是千万别为了爱而改变自己。我的朋友因此备受煎熬,我不希望别人也落得这样的下场。"

然而,这部影片并未获得马来社会仅有的一群同性恋倡导者的共鸣,相反,他们也加入宗教团体对该影片批评的声浪中,当然,为着不同的原因。28岁的财务分析师Alex一直匿名在博客上发表与男同相关的文章,并要求隐去其真实姓名。Alex表示虽然这是第一部讲述男同的电影,具有开创性的进步意义。但是他却担心影片会加深马来文化对男同固有的偏见和刻板映像。"影片结尾非常消极,主角对变性的决定深感后悔,并最终爱上别的女性。这样的故事并不能提升男同在马来社会中的形象。" 他说。

      马来西亚的电影审查制度要求影片中男同和变性群体的角色最终都对自己的决定表示悔恨,并试图从错误中吸取教训。这是电影《在瓶中》为获得公映许可而必须遵守的规则。

吉隆坡变性者活动分子、35岁的Yuki Choe表示"这可不是马来西亚的《断背山》。这部影片让LGBT群体(同性、双性恋与变性者)显得沮丧和困惑。马来社会总是试图让我们自惭形秽。可无论愿意与否,我们必须承认要在穆斯林国家难公开自己的性取向是非常困难的。"

      一名穆斯林男同性恋者Azwan Ismail去年12月因在Youtube网站上传鼓励马来西亚男同更加自信的视频,而受到死亡恐吓。

      同年十月,PAS政党要求当局取消美国男同歌手Adam Lambert的演唱会。虽然演唱会同期举行,但政党成员在会场外举行抗议示威。

      马来西亚反鸡奸法是英国殖民时期的遗物,但该法令目前在马来社会仍然生效,对违法者实施最高20年的监禁以及一次鞭刑。

      反对派政治领袖Anwar Ibrahim目前正在受审,很多马来西亚人认为这是为结束其政治生涯的蓄意政治行动。马来西亚律师公会人权委员会Andrew Khoo表示,通常情况下,只要男同性恋谨慎小心,受到指控的情况是非常罕见的。

      但是Anwar的案例以及电影《在瓶中》却把男同问题推到了风口浪尖。Andrew说:"我很高兴看到这部电影把男同问题带到公共讨论中来。但是问题是政府能够通过电影审查委员会,对这个问题的公共讨论进行控制。"

      近几年来,一场小型的男同权利运动正在酝酿之中。马来西亚艾滋慈善机构PT基金会负责人Kevin Baker表示:"现在还处于前期,希望这场运动能够持续下去,帮助更多LGBT人群不再为其性取向而担忧。"

      部分马来西亚人认为该影片有特定的议程,但该片导演Khir Rahman并不认可这种猜测。"我们的目标是尽可能诚实地讲故事,如果你想从中获得别的东西,那完全取决于你个人。"他说。


Asia Report 翻译

原文链接:http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/18/malaysia-first-film-gay-characters


机构:PT Foundation

 

 

APN+

ND protest 4.jpg

  Source: APN+

New Delhi, 2 March 2011- More than three thousand people living with HIV from across India and Asia marched to Parliament Street in New Delhi today alongside the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health. They urged the Indian government to stand strong amid pressure from the European Union (EU) to accept provisions in a free trade agreement (FTA) that would restrict access to affordable medicines. The sensitive negotiations are taking place in Brussels today.

 

"We all rely on affordable medicines made here in India to stay alive,"said Nepal-based Rajiv Kafle of the Asia Pacific Network of Positive People (APN+).  "We don't want to go back in time, to when our friends and loved ones just died because they couldn't afford the medicines they needed.  We're taking to the streets today, and many of us have come to Delhi to send a very simple message to the Indian government: Don't trade away our lives in the EU-India FTA."

 

 

The EU is pushing for intellectual property (IP) provisions in the FTA that exceed what international trade rules require.  The most damaging measure to access to affordable medicines is so-called 'data exclusivity,' which would act like a patent and block generic versions from the market, even for drugs that are already off patent, or do not merit a patent to begin with under India's strict patent law.  The EU continues to claim - falsely - that these provisions will not harm access to medicines.

 

"Data exclusivity has proven to be damaging to public health in free trade agreements in other countries," said Anand Grover, the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health.  "It would be a colossal mistake to introduce data exclusivity in India, when millions of people across the globe depend on the country as the 'pharmacy of the developing world."

 

Affordable medicines produced in India have played a major role, for example, in scaling up HIV/AIDS treatment to more than five million people in developing countries.  India was able to produce more affordable versions of medicines patented elsewhere because it did not grant patents on medicines until 2005, when World Trade Organization rules required it to do so.  But when India designed its 2005 patent law, it prioritized public health over company profits, limiting patents to drugs that are new, and not just improvements of older medicines.

 

"India's patent law has long annoyed multinational pharmaceutical companies, and Novartis and Bayer have even tried to overturn the law in the courts,"said Loon Gangte, of the Delhi Network of Positive People.  "Having failed so far, companies have now lobbied European governments to take up their fight for pharmaceutical profits."

 

The fact that India does now grant patents on medicines is already having a chilling effect on generic production.  Several newer medicines to treat HIV, hepatitis-C and cancer have already been patented in India and their more affordable generic versions cannot be produced for several years to come. 

 

"We have not been able to get generic versions of treatment for hepatitis-C that affects current and former injectingdrug users and many people living with HIV because the medicine is patented in India," said Abou Mere of the Indian Drug User's Forum (IDUF). "And I don't know any one of us who can afford the Rs. 7 lakhs (over US$15,000) it costs in India for the full treatment."

 

The IP provisions the EU is pushing would make this difficult situation significantly worse, by imposing even more restrictions on the production of affordable generic medicines in the future.

 

Intellectual property in FTAs can undermine the right to health in many ways.  For example, tobacco companies are using FTAs with intellectual property in investment chapters to sue governments directly for their efforts to bring in measures to protect public health.  

 

"As we speak, Philip Morris is using the Switzerland-Uruguay trade agreement to sue Uruguay for its decision to introduce larger and more graphic health warnings on cigarette packs,"said Y.K. Sapru, of the Cancer Patients Aid Association, which has long advocated for tobacco control measures in India.  "The Indian government and the World Health Organization should wake up to the fact that the Convention on Tobacco Control is also under attack in these FTAs."

 

"What the EU wants with this FTA places trade interests over human rights and, in effect, may not be compliant with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and other international instruments concerning the right to health,"added the Special Rapporteur.  "Provisions pertaining to intellectual property in the draft FTA should be urgently reconsidered."

 

 

Contact:  

Sheila Shettle: +91.98.7180.0723Shailly Gupta: +91.98.9997.6108


Weblink: http://www.apnplus.org/main/Index.php?module=news&news=61


Organization:

Asia Pacific Network of Positive People (APN+)

Delhi Network of Positive People (DNP)

the Cancer Patients Aid Association (CPAA)

ND protest 4.jpg

Source: APN+

 印度新德里


来自亚洲地区和印度全国的超过3000名艾滋病毒携带者与联合国健康与权力问题特别报告员在新德里国会大街一同举行抗议游行。他们要求印度政府坚决抵制欧盟自由贸易协定条款所带来的巨大压力,该条款将严格限制廉价药物,对患者获得廉价药物造成阻碍。以下是示威者的声明。

201132

位于尼泊尔的 亚太艾滋病感染者网络(APN+)代表Rajiv Kafle表示:"我们的生命依赖着印度生产的廉价药物。我们不想回到从前,那时候我们的朋友和爱人因无力购买所需的药物而死去。我们今天来到新德里,走上街头,仅仅对印度政府提出一个简单的要求:不要拿我们的生命换取欧盟-印度自由贸易协定"

 联合国健康与权力问题特别报告员Anand Grover也作出表率:"经证明自由贸易协定所规定的数据独占权对别国公共健康带来严重损害。在印度实施数据独占这一法令更是一个巨大的错误。因为世界各地的患者都依赖着作为'发展中国家的药房'的印度。"

 德里艾滋患者网络代表Loon Gangte也表示:"印度的专利权早就惹恼了众多国际制药公司,诺华(Novartis)和拜尔(Bayer)两公司甚至在法庭上试图推翻该法案。虽然未获得成功,但这两家公司现正游说欧盟政府维护制药利润。"

 印度成瘾者论坛代表Abou Mere表示:"由于在印度药物受专利权保护,我们目前还是无法得到治疗丙型肝炎的非专利治疗方案,而丙型肝炎是毒品成瘾者和艾滋病毒携带者的主要病症。我想在印度没有人能够承受70万卢比(超过1.5万美元)的治疗。"

 癌症病人援助联盟一直提倡在印度实施香烟控制措施,此次也加入到抗议队伍当中。联盟负责人Y.K. Sapru表示:"菲利普莫里斯公司正在用瑞士-乌拉圭自由贸易协定起诉乌拉圭在香烟包装上放置更大更形象的'吸烟有害健康'的警示。印度政府和世界卫生组织应该从这个事件上觉醒过来,香烟管理条例也受到自由贸易协定的打击。"

  联合国健康与权力问题特别报告员再次补充道:"欧盟把自贸协定所能带来的利益至于人权至上,违背了《经济、社会和文化权利国际公约》(ICESCR)以及其它国际相关健康权利公约的精神和要求。应立即重新考虑自贸协定中有关知识产权的条例。"

联系人:

Sheila Shettle: +91.98.7180.0723

Shailly Gupta: +91.98.9997.6108


Asia Report 翻译


原文链接:http://www.apnplus.org/main/Index.php?module=news&news=61


机构:

亚太艾滋病感染者网络 (APN+)

德里艾滋患者网络(DNP+)

癌症病人援助联盟 (CPAA)



 

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