经济: March 2011的归档

组织:

IRIN

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IRIN是全球知名的人道主义网络新闻媒体,其新闻以及分析报道涵盖世界多数未经报道以及被忽略的地区。IRIN为世界各地超过100万的读者提供第一线的人道主义报道。

根据2008年全球市场营销公司ACNielsen调查,IRIN被读者选为人道主义新闻来源的首选网站,其报道广泛用于计划、倡导、政策发展的制定。

根据IRIN统计,网站主要读者52%为人道主义工作者,就职于各个国际/本国非政府组织,联合国、政府、资助方、人道主义与发展咨询公司。25%的读者来自学界,包括学者、老师、研究人员、分析员、智库、学生。9%的读者为媒体从业人员。14%为其他从业者,包括公司员工、私营者、军人等。

 

网址:http://www.irinnews.org/

组织:

RTI International

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    RTI International是世界顶级的研究机构,致力于通过把知识转化为行动来改善人类生存状况。机构2800余名研究人员为40多国政府提供研究和技术服务,涵盖主题包括:健康和药物、教育和培训、调查和统计、先进技术、国际发展、经济和社会政策、能源和环境、以及实验和化学分析。

 

网址:http://www.rti.org/

 

联络方式:

 

新闻媒体处
E-mail: news@rti.org
Lisa Bistreich: 919-316-3596
Patrick Gibbons: 919-541-6136

 

卫理公会联合救灾委员会(UMCOR)是联合卫公理会下一个非营利性的全球人道救援机构。包括美国在内,UMCOR在世界80多个国家实施项目。以宣传耶稣教义为基础,该机构以减少人类痛苦为工作重点,无论这种痛苦来自于战争、冲突或是自然灾害。

 

UMCOR和本土机构合作,共同致力于帮助生还者重建家园,帮助其恢复生计以及身体健康。UMCOR的项目范围主要包括:消除贫困和饥饿、可持续农业、国际和国内紧急救援、难民和移民问题、全球健康问题、过渡性发展等。

 

网站:http://new.gbgm-umc.org/umcor/

 

联系方式:
United Methodist Committee on Relief
地址:475 Riverside Drive, Room 1522, New York, NY 10115
电话: 212-870-3951
Email umcor@gbgm-umc.org

UMCOR International Field Offices (NGO)
地址:475 Riverside Drive, Room 1530
电话: 212-870-3552
传真: 212-870-3508
Email umcor_office@umcor.org

 

组织:

OXFAM 乐施会

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    乐施会是一个由14个机构共同组成的国际联盟,乐施会与地方合作伙伴在世界98个国家实施项目,致力于消除贫穷,以及与贫穷有关的不公平现象。

    乐施会深入社区开展项目,希望通过赋权改善贫困人口的生活,并有机会参与到政策制定的过程中来。

 

我们做什么

通过发起解决紧急事件的倡导运动,研究如何与他人合作共同对抗贫苦和社会不公。

 

为什么我们这么做

我们相信尊重人权能帮助人们走出贫困。

 

乐施会国际办事处

主席: Keith Johnston

副主席:Michael Henry

主管:Jeremy Hobbs

财务主管:Monique Letourneau

 

网址:http://www.oxfam.org/

 

地址:Oxfam International Secretariat,Suite 20 ,266 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7DL, United Kingdom

传真: +44 1865 339 101

电话: +44 1865 339 100

 

IRIN


YANGON, 1 March 2011  - The international community should make better use of local NGOs and community-based organizations in Myanmar, while at the same time building capacity among them, aid officials say.

"Local NGOs... have local knowledge, contacts and they don't have to worry about getting permission on planning and resources from a central head office. They also have little problem accessing different parts of the country," said Walter Davis, programme manager for Paung Ku, a consortium of 11 international and local organizations established in 2007 to strengthen civil society in Myanmar.

But as things stand, most donors continue to funnel money through international NGOs (INGOs), which at times compete with local groups.

"INGOs need to change to do more capacity building. The rules of engagement still see local NGOs as subcontractors because their capacity is weaker," said Aung Tun Thet, a senior adviser to the UN Resident Coordinator in Myanmar.

"INGOs need to decide whether they are in direct competition with [local organizations] or whether they are here to mentor local NGOs," he added.

Post-Nargis growth

Cyclone Nargis in 2008 spawned hundreds of civil society organizations to cope with the humanitarian crisis that killed a reported 140,000 and affected another 2.4 million, by UN estimates.

"Nargis was a catalytic push for the mushrooming of local NGOs. There were 50 times as many NGOs as before," said Aung Tun Thet.

"Faced with the magnitude of Cyclone Nargis, donors needed to find a way to give money and not go through the government - the elephant in the room," he added.

Local groups were a natural funding vehicle as they reacted most quickly when the tidal surge hit.

But when the government declared an end to the tsunami's emergency phase in 2010, many of these same NGOs collapsed or turned to development activities - often lacking basic capacity to carry out the work.

"With such rapid evolution [of NGOs activated by Cyclone Nargis], the rigor required of NGOs did not accompany this expansion. These groups have good intentions but lack basic rudimentary management skills," said Aung Tun Thet.

Too often, local groups have been recruited and supported to serve the project needs of INGOs, but not beyond, said Ingeborg Moa, Myanmar director of Norwegian People's Aid, which has supported dozens of local groups since 2004.

"If more funding could be [made] available for organizational development, capacity building and support for initiatives that aim to strengthen local organizations' overall capacities, not just their capacity to 'deliver services' as implementing partners of international organizations, this would be a big step in the right direction," said Moa.

Removing barriers

Focusing on so-called shortcomings in local accounting and management systems may be misguided, according to a December report by Paung Ku, which includes Save the Children, Oxfam and CARE, as well as local groups.

Receipts, for example, are often difficult to obtain in Myanmar, leaving many organizations unable by international standards to account for resources and unable to qualify for international funds, Davis said.

"Myanmar has a long history of using accountability mechanisms related to religious donations, with Buddhist monks playing a key check and balance role. Strengthening these existing frameworks may ultimately be more effective in building accountability than continuing to use imported concepts," said Davis.

A cumbersome government NGO registration process is an additional obstacle for local groups to tap international funds.

"The government would not allow any group without a [memorandum of understanding] to accept donor funds. What is needed is a more transparent registration process," said Aung Tun Thet.

An official at the local relief NGO, Aung Yadanar, based in the town of Pyapon in southern Myanmar, said he applied for registration soon after he co-founded the NGO in 2008 - but has yet to receive any news.

"In the meanwhile, we have to keep [a] good relationship with township authorities so that we can do our job."

Even without being formally registered, the group still receives funding from the UK Department for International Development, which also provides technical assistance along with the Ministry of Agriculture.

There are an estimated 300 NGOs working in Myanmar, of which a maximum 10 percent are registered, according to the UN Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU).


Weblink:http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportID=91949

Organization:Paung Ku


组织:

Paung Ku

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Paung Ku 2007年成立于缅甸,是一个由11家国际和本土NGO(包括乐施会、救助儿童会、CARE等)联合组成的国际工作团队。Paung Ku的宗旨是:通过创新来增强缅甸公民社会。

 

地址:Save the Children, Wizaya Plaza, 226 U Wisara Road, 1st Floor, Bahan Township,Yangon, Myanmar

电话:375 791, 375 801, 375 739, 375 796, 375 747, 537 387, 536 732, 537 092

CARAM Asia


Foreward

  The unprecedented economic growth and social and economic inequalities that Asia is experiencing combine to create complex  push and pull factors that have led to large movements of people in the region.  At any given point in time, there are an estimated 54 million people on the move outside of their home countries within Asia and beyond, and almost half that number, are estimated to be women. Asia is one of the largest suppliers of international migrant women who serve as domestic workers.

Outside Asia, the countries of the Arab States region are the primary destination for a majority of migrant workers from the Philippines, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The economic gains generated by migrant workers to both countries of origin and host countries are considerable reaching almost 8% of GDP in Sri Lanka and as high as 17% of the national GDP in the Philippines.  Yet, there is a major disconnect between the economic contribution of migrant workers and the poor conditions and meager support many receive throughout their migration journey.

A key issue of concern with cross border and overseas migration is HIV and AIDS. In recent years, an increasing number of migrant workers from Asia have been diagnosed with HIV in various countries in the Arab States. Deportations due to HIV status have resulted in severe economic loss for migrant workers and their families, who have been declared by local authorities as "unfit" to work abroad.

Governments from Asian countries have also been concerned about this issue. The Ministers of Health from the Governments of Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India, the Philippines and Bangladesh called for a meeting on the issue at the time of the World Health Assembly of 2007 highlighting the need to engage in inter regional dialogue with countries from the Arab States region to find ways to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities to HIV that migrant workers face..

 

  The purpose of this study was commissioned to shed light on the complex relationship between migration and HIV vulnerability, with a special focus on the vulnerabilities faced by Asian migrant women.

Through in-depth and focus group discussions, the study discloses the vulnerabilities that Asian migrant women encounter throughout the migration cycle. They often leave for overseas work under unsafe conditions, live in very difficult circumstances, and are often targets of sexual exploitation and violence before they depart, during their transit and stay in host countries and on return to their countries of origin. With little or no access to health services and social protection, these factors combine to make Asian women migrants highly vulnerable to HIV.

Confronted with inadequate policies and legislation that are not enforceable in host countries, migrant women often have limited or no access to justice and redress mechanisms, especially in Gulf countries. If they are found HIV positive, they face deportation and back in their countries of origin they experience discrimination and social isolation in addition to the difficulty of finding alternative livelihoods.

  As the research shows, there are several good practices from both countries of origin  and host countries that are making a difference to migrant's lives, from the bilateral agreements negotiated between the Philippines and host countries, to social protection afforded to migrants in Lebanon. It is the intention of this study to highlight emerging good practice, deepen our understanding of the linkages between HIV and migration to inform and shape more effective policy and programme responses for Asian migrant women that will ensure safe mobility with dignity, equity and justice.


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Organization: CARAM ASIA

CARAM Asia 报告



移民妇女面对对艾滋病病毒的脆弱性:从亚洲到阿拉伯地区

--从静默、引以为耻、羞愧到有尊严、公平和公正地安全迁移的转变

 

前言

亚洲地区空前的经济增长带来了巨大的社会和经济不平等,这直接成为该地区大量人口流动的动因。据估计,目前亚洲流动人口人数达到五千四百万,其中将近一半是妇女。亚洲已成为国际家庭保姆的主要来源地。亚洲以外的其它地区,例如阿拉伯国家,是来自菲律宾、孟加拉、斯里兰卡、巴基斯坦的移民妇女工人的首选目的地。

目前对跨境和海外移民主要关注的一个问题是艾滋病病毒和艾滋病的传染。近几年,在很多阿拉伯国家,越来越多的亚洲移民工人被诊断出感染了艾滋病毒。因感染艾滋病毒而被遣返回国的工人失去经济来源,对其家庭造成巨大影响。

亚洲国家政府也高度重视这个问题。2007年巴基斯坦、斯里兰卡、印尼、印度、菲律宾、孟加拉国政府在世界卫生大会上与阿拉伯地区的国家积极展开地区间对话,以降低移民工所面对的艾滋病感染风险和脆弱性。

这个研究的主要关注移民以及其在面对病毒时的脆弱性之间复杂的关系,特别强调亚洲女性移民工所面临的风险。

通过深度访谈和小组讨论,本研究揭示了亚洲女性移民在迁移过程中所遭遇的脆弱性。她们常常在不安全的条件下工作,居住在糟糕的环境里,并经常遭受暴力,成为性奴役的目标、她们缺乏卫生服务和社会保障,这些因素造成了亚洲女性移民面临艾滋病毒时高度的脆弱性。

这个研究也展示了东道国和移民来源国为改善移民状况所实施的优秀的案例,例如菲律宾和东道国签订的双边协议,黎巴嫩为移民工人提供社会保障。本研究意在突显不断出现的良好实践,加深我们对艾滋病毒与移民工人之间的关系的认识,促进相关政策和项目的事实,最终保证亚洲女性移民获得尊严、公平和公正。


Asia Report 编译


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机构:CARAM Asia



 

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