泰国: April 2011的归档


G.P.O Box 485,Chiang Mai 50000, Thailand.
email : hreburma@loxinfo.co.th

The Nation

    泰国公共卫生部正为实现零艾滋病毒新增病例、防止歧视行为和消除艾滋病所致死亡的目标而积极采取行动。公共卫生部部长Jurin Laksanawisit 对媒体表示:"例如,我们每年为学生提供16-30个小时的性教育。我们也为包括性工作者和男同性恋者在内的高危群体提供友好的服务。"




Asia Report 编译

原文链接: http://groups.google.com/group/aids-beyond-borders/browse_thread/thread/6d24395b8a7c18e9?pli=1

Source: The Nation

The Public Health Ministry and its allies are implementing many measures to achieve the goals of zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero Aids-related deaths.

"For example, we have provided 16 to 30 hours of sex education to students each year. We have also provided friendly services to people in at risk groups including sex workers and homosexual men", Public Health Minister Jurin Laksanawisit said yesterday.

The three targets are in line with the guidelines set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.

AIDS patients are now receiving medical treatment at an earlier stage to make it easier to maintain their health. Antiretroviral drugs used to be prescribed only after the CD4 cell count dropped below 200, but now the threshold is 350.

Everyone and their families can get free tests for the immunodeficiency virus twice a year under the universal healthcare, social security and civil service medical care schemes.

The National Health Security Office's budget for free Aids treatment has been boosted to Bt2.99 billion this year from Bt2.7 billion last year.

"We have also provided free treatment to alien workers suffering from Aids," he said.

"To ensure zero discrimination, we don't allow employers to subject their employees to HIV blood tests before recruitment."

About 1.16 million people were estimated to be HIV positive last year, of whom 644,000 have died.

The country sees about 10,850 new HIV infections each year, 33 percent of which are in sexually active homosexual men and 28 percent in housewives contracting the virus from their husbands or regular sex partners.

Men contracting HIV from spouses accounted for about 10 percent of the new infections, while men contracting the virus from sex workers also accounted for 10 percent. Of the new infections 9 percent were found in people who injected drugs and 7 percent in those engaging in casual sex. Sex workers - mostly 15-49 years old - who were infected by male customers were 4 percent.

The ministry will host a national conference on Aids from March 29-31 at Impact Muang Thong Thani with the aim to help prevent the spread of HIV and build public awareness of Aids patients' rights. Some 3,500 people have registered to attend.

The last five years have seen astonishing - arguably catastrophic - increases in HIV seroprevalence among Thai gay men and men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV seroprevalence has risen from less than 10 percent early this decade to more than 28 percent by mid-decade.

Major questions of international significance arise:
• How could increases as dramatic as these happen in a country with a previously successful HIV prevention response?
• Is Bangkok merely the precursor for similar HIV catastrophes among the MSM communities of Asia's other mega-cities?
• What can the world learn from Thailand's experience in these dramatic increases?

A complex series of factors is involved in analysing why these increases happened - but arguably they add up to Bangkok being a tragic case study of how an effective 'enabling environment' for a national HIV response can be inadvertently dismantled - with catastrophic results.

Author: Don Baxter is the  honorary Regional Coordinator of APCASO (Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organisations) and the Executive Director of AFAO (Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations).  The views expressed in this article are his own.

Read more: http://www.msmgf.org/index.cfm/id/11/aid/3347/lang_id/1


作者:Don Baxter,亚太艾滋服务机构联盟区域(Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations)名誉协调人、澳大利亚艾滋机构联盟执行主席(Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations





1.       在一个有过成功抗击艾滋传播经验的国家,这样急剧的增长何以发生?

2.       曼谷是否只是一个先例?同样的情况是否会出现在亚洲其它大城市的MSM群体中?

3.       我们能从泰国这一案例中学到什么?

Asia Report 编译

全文阅读: http://www.msmgf.org/index.cfm/id/11/aid/3347/lang_id/1




Health authorities will set up "Condom Points" to dispense free condoms at entertainment venues frequented by gay men in a bid to reduce risky sexual behaviour and the transmission of HIV/Aids.

Under the pilot project, purple plastic boxes filled with 300 condoms of different sizes and lubricant gel packs will be installed at entertainment spots targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) such as discos, karaoke bars, fitness centres, saunas and beauty salons.

The project is part of a national Aids prevention plan among this particular group.

HIV surveillance data indicates a high HIV transmission rate among MSM in Thailand due to unsafe sex. Of the estimated 10,097 new HIV cases expected this year, 30% would involve men having sex with men, according to the Public Health Ministry.

"If we don't come up with any prevention plan, this MSM group could account for half the total new cases in the country in the next 14 years," said Public Health permanent secretary Paijit Warachit.

So far operators of 188 entertainment nightspots in 30 provinces including Chiang Mai, Chon Buri and Phuket have agreed to participate.

Dr Paijit said the Condom Point programme is planned to cover entertainment spots nationwide by next year.

An estimated 2.5 million baht in funding was allocated for the Condom Point project this year.

Aids experts will monitor the project over the next five years, he said.

Kittinan Thammatat, chairman of the gay rights advocacy group Thai Rainbow Club, believed the Condom Point project would allow young, sexually active MSM better access to condoms, regarded as an effective tool to prevent the transmission of HIV/Aids and other sexually-transmitted diseases such as syphilis and hepatitis.

Mr Kittinan also called on policymakers to work with companies to lower the price of condoms. A pack of condoms costs 40-50 baht and this is considered expensive by teenagers whether they are gay or straight.

A study by the Thai Red Cross's Aids Research Centre and Chulalongkorn University's faculty of medicine on 11,658 MSM who visited its clinic between January 2009 and July 2010 found a spike in syphilis transmission among them as well. The study reflected the need for a better prevention plan for sexually transmitted diseases among this group.

Speaking during the 13th National Aids Conference, Phusit Prakongsai, International Health Policy Programme director, said national investment in such a high-burden disease as Aids was still insufficient.

Less than 1% of the country's gross domestic product was spent on HIV/Aids although the disease affected patients' quality of life.

In addition, only 5% of the total 300 billion baht spent on the universal healthcare scheme is earmarked for health prevention in general.

Mr Phusit believed more money should be spent on Aids and prevention campaigns to solve the problem in both the public health and social dimensions.


    该项目属于国家艾滋防治计划的一部分。根据艾滋病监控数据显示,泰国男男性行为着通过不安全性行为感染艾滋病毒的几率非常高。国家公共卫生署今年新增的10097名感染者中,30%属于该群体。公共卫生部部长Paijit Warachit表示:"如果没有这个防艾的计划,男男性行为群体在未来14年中感染人数将占总感染者人数的一半。"


    男同权利倡导组织--泰国彩虹俱乐部主席 Kittinan Thammatat相信安全套发放站项目将使性行为频繁的年轻男男性行为者更容易获得安全套,是减少艾滋和其它例如梅毒和肝炎等传染病的传播的有效途径。泰国红十字会下属的艾滋研究中心和朱拉隆功大学医学院共同开展的研究显示,2009年1月至2010年7月间前来就诊的11658名男男性行为者中梅毒感染者也占相当大的比例。研究证明了该群体对性病预防项目的需求。


Asia Report 翻译



组织:Thai Rainbow Club

by Kunaldpatel

 "These kids just need a platform to get their views across". These were some of the words amongst the many spoken by Christopher Whitfield on another blazing day in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Over what can only be described as typical Thai fare, brownies and ice tea, Christopher explained to me why he, a photographer from Portland, Oregon, was attempting to work with college students from Chiang Mai. Being a representative of Art Relief International (ARI) he has been sent to Thailand to specifically address some of the issues the gay community face here. Over the last few years the MSM (men having sex with men) group, including transgenders and sex workers, have become increasingly accepted amongst society here. However there are still many difficulties faced by those living at home with families and those who may have been diagnosed with HIV. Stigma and the pain that comes with it still exist even with the continued efforts of MPlus+, an NGO based in Chiang Mai specifically dealing with HIV awareness and the rights of the MSM and gay community.

Working at MPlus+ has allowed me to personally see what Christopher, ARI and Mplus+ have been doing to address some of these issues. Earlier this year, ARI approached MPlus+ in the hope of using the creative arts to work on the issues faced by the gay community in Chiang Mai. Last week I sat in on a session where this collaboration was encouraging local college kids to let their creative juices flow. By using storyboards, a translator and Christopher's eye for imagery, the students came up with a film idea expressing what the young face, even by just being suspected of being gay and not fitting in with the norm. The story revolved around a boy picking up a flower amongst the thousands in a park, smelling it and continuing to hold it. This is construed to be 'atypical' behaviour for a male by the child's parents and he is subsequently beaten with a wooden cane. I will not reveal anymore in regards to the film, as you shall have to see it online, however, the message is clear; even simple gestures that in an ideal society would mean nothing, can mean a lot here.

This film is addressing 'acceptance' and this is an incredibly important issue if Mplus+ is to succeed in aiding the gay community and also spreading HIV awareness. With the cogs turning in terms of keeping mobile HIV clinics maintained, awareness programmes going and fundraising concerts started, all it takes is the non-acceptance of this community to introduce a painfully large spanner in the works. This highlights the need to work on the rights of the MSM/gay community while increasing HIV awareness, simultaneously. One cannot work without the other.

Seeing the film workshop was encouraging, not only in visualising a potential film but also observing how creativity and human rights can work towards defeating two of the most important global health issues we face; stigma and non-acceptance. If this energy were harnessed by big creative companies such as Disney or the BBC, imagine what could be achieved? A gay Woody in Toy Story 4 or maybe an HBO series about a male, Burmese, HIV positive, sex worker? Lets hope many learn from what MPlus+ and ARI are doing, and just maybe next time you turn on your TV, you'll be watching the pilot episode of ' Sex in The City: Chiang Mai'.




Organizations: MPlus+

                      Art Relief International (ARI)



Art Relief International (ARI)

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ARI最初作为Culture Canvas Thailand的一个项目主要关注如何利用创造力和艺术与山地少数民族、缅甸难民、需要帮助的单亲母亲、男同与变性者社区形成网络联系。两年之后改项目成功转型为一个独立的组织,并在以后的发展中逐渐壮大,项目活动现已扩大到为孤儿和残疾儿童提供学习艺术的机会。








地址:PO Box 118, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand 50202
电话:泰国:  +66 869 202 451
美国:  +1 850 316 8470
Email:   info@artrelief.net



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Pongthorn Chanlearn 先生

电话/传真:+66 53 814 487

移动电话:+66 81 595 4994

地址:9/2 Samlan Rd., Soi 6T. Prasing A. Muang Chiang Mai, Thailand 50200







  我们在一个典型的泰国市集上享用了一些巧克力蛋糕和冰茶后,克里斯多夫像我解释了他为什么放弃在美国俄勒冈州波特兰市做一名摄影师而来到泰国和清迈的大学生一起工作。作为一名国际艺术救济基金会(ARI-Art Relief International)的代表到泰国来从事男同社区所面对的问题。虽然这些年以来包括变性者和性工作者在内的男男性行为人群(MSM)逐渐被泰国社会接受,然而对于那些仍然与家庭其他成员共同生活以及艾滋病毒携带者来说,尽管清迈本土NGO MPlus+为提高公众对艾滋病毒的认识以及积极争取MSM与男同社区的权利做出了不懈地努力,被污名化的痛苦依然存在。




Asia Report 翻译


组织: MPlus+
         Art Relief Foundation

When Men Talk About Sex

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Sutthida Mallikaew

CHIANG MAI, Thailand, Mar 14 (IPS Asia-Pacific) - Tun Yo may not have known much about the ways of the world when he first came to work in one of the orange groves here seven years ago. After all, he was just a young boy of 14 at the time and one of the thousands of Burmese migrants who pour into Thailand every year.

Indeed, even when he finally got married, chances are he knew little or nothing about family planning or reproductive health. In fact, Tun Yo probably could have cared less.

That, however, is no longer the case. As one of the participants in a project aimed at Burmese male migrants here in Chiang Mai, Tun Yo recently attended a reproductive-health training workshop that has inspired him to discuss birth control methods with his wife. In addition, he says, he has become conscious of sexual hygiene and has learned about how to avoid getting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV and /AIDS.

"I think compared to women, men are not interested much in their health," comments Dr. Samphan Kahinthapong, Northern Region director of the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand (PPAT), which runs the project that received support from the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). "In fact, if men are responsible for their reproductive health, (that) will help both their health and their partner's."

It was this thinking that had PPAT creating and then implementing the project that began in June last year and ends in March 2011this month. Aside from offering training workshops that employ some of the migrants themselves as traineors, the project includes mobile clinics that provide contraceptives and treatment, as well as conduct tests for STDs.

In coming up with the project, PPAT had noted that most of the estimated two million Burmese migrants currently in Thailand have limited or no access to health services and education. Perhaps as a consequence, it said, the Burmese migrant community suffered from "early or unwanted pregnancies, early marriage, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs including HIV/AIDS), unsafe abortions, and violence against women".

The project aimed at providing information on sexual and reproductive health to 4,000 people and related services to 1,000 people. Male Burmese migrant workers at orange plantations, construction sites and elsewhere here in northern Thailand were the target beneficiaries.

It may have helped that most of these workers are Thai Yai, a Burmese ethnic minority in which relations between genders are more equal compared to those in other ethic groupstribes. Yet even then, some men admit to attitudinal changes after taking part in the project.

For instance, they say that they now don't think of household chores as being solely the burden of women, especially since both men and women these days work outside of the home.

One 37-year-old female worker also says, "It seemed to be embarrassing to talk about sex with my husband, but with the knowledge he now has, I tell him when I don't want to have sex because I have my period or when I'm so tired."

"He doesn't refuse when I ask him to buy my (sanitary pads)," she adds. "If we were in our home community in Mong Pan (in Shan state, Burma), I don't think he would buy them. The men there feel so embarrassed even to wash look at women's clothes."

Other male and female Burmese workers say that after undergoing training as part of the project, men seemed to respect and understand the women more. Participants showed more concern about having "quality" family life, they say.

Project officer Benjawan Srivichai also says increased understanding between the sexes is among the changes they have seen so far among the participants. "Males used to monopolise decision-making, but now they listen to each other more," she says. "We have heard more about men and women being equal. In addition, male and women workers have more access to reproductive-health services, condoms, and contraceptive pills."

PPAT is now thinking of extending the project's life span to ensure that such changes last. Dr. Samphan says as well that doing so would enable PPAT to expand the target beneficiaries to include boys. Moreover, he says, a long-term project would more suitable in addressing the seeming trend of early pregnancies.

Gender expert Niwat Suwanpattana meanwhile says that the PPAT project is a good initiative. But he thinks its focus is too limited to hygiene and contraception. Niwat, who is an advisor to the Thai Network Coalition on AIDS, says that he would like to see it move on to other directions, such as toward encouraging women to see sex beyond being a mere "duty" to their partners..

This is not the first time, though, that PPAT has had a project aimed at Burmese migrants in Chiang Mai. In recent years, it has provided reproductive-health services, but these were mainly for women migrants and consisted of gynaecological exams and pap smears, among others. P Yet while PPAT tends to have projects in the same areas for years, it has no problems with changing its programmes in accordance to the community's needs.

Migrant workers like Tun Yo couldn't be happier with its most recent initiative. Says Tun Yo: "I have never used condoms before, and now I know how to use it and that it is used not only for birth control but also for preventing HIV and other STDs."

"(My wife and I) are also discussing more about when we should have a baby," he says. According to Tun Yo, the project has made them realise there were many family birth control planning options they could choose from.



Orgnization: the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand (PPAT)

撰文:Sutthida Mallikaew




7年前当Tun Yo第一次来到泰国北部的桔园打工时也许并不太了解这个世界。那时他仅仅14岁,只是每年成千上万来到泰国打工的缅甸民工之一。事实上当他结婚后对计划生育和生殖健康也知之甚少,而且Tun Yo自身也不太关注这些问题。


然而,现在情况却出现了转变。Tun Yo最近参加了一个关于生殖健康的培训工作坊,这激发了他与妻子共同探讨避孕措施的兴趣。另外他还补充道现在他很注意性卫生,并且学习如何避免感染包括艾滋在内的性传播疾病。


泰国北部地区计划生育协会(PPAT)负责人Samphan Kahinthapong 博士表示:"我认为同女性相比,男性并不是那么关注他们的健康。"该协会接受来自国际计划生育联盟(IPPF)的支持,在泰北执行相关项目。"事实上如果男性对生殖健康负责,那么将有益于自身和伴侣的健康。"她说。












项目官员Benjawan Srivichai也表示目前与会者对两性有了更进一步的理解,一些变化正在发生。"男性过去总是掌握了更多决定权。但是现在他们开始愿意倾听女性的意见。"她说,"我们总能听到人们谈论男女平等。另外,现在男、女工人都能获得更多生殖健康方面的服务、安全套和避孕药。"


同时,社会性别专家Niwat Suwanpattana也提出虽然PPAT项目是一个很好的开始,但他认为项目太过于集中对保健和避孕问题的讨论。作为泰国艾滋网络联盟的顾问,Niwat希望项目的主题也能够的得到扩展,例如鼓励妇女享受性行为带来的快乐,而不仅仅把性看做"分内之事"。



Tun Yo一样的缅甸移民工人对于近期的项目活动非常满意。"我以前从来没用过避孕套,现在我不仅知道怎么用,而且还明白安全套可以预防艾滋病和其它性病。"他说:"我和妻子现在对何时生子这个问题也讨论的更多了。"Tun Yo表示这个项目让他们意识到有很多可以选择的避孕措施。

Asia Report翻译



机构:the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand (PPAT) 泰国计划生育协会








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