The unprecedented economic growth and social and economic inequalities that Asia is experiencing combine to create complex  push and pull factors that have led to large movements of people in the region.  At any given point in time, there are an estimated 54 million people on the move outside of their home countries within Asia and beyond, and almost half that number, are estimated to be women. Asia is one of the largest suppliers of international migrant women who serve as domestic workers.

Outside Asia, the countries of the Arab States region are the primary destination for a majority of migrant workers from the Philippines, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The economic gains generated by migrant workers to both countries of origin and host countries are considerable reaching almost 8% of GDP in Sri Lanka and as high as 17% of the national GDP in the Philippines.  Yet, there is a major disconnect between the economic contribution of migrant workers and the poor conditions and meager support many receive throughout their migration journey.

A key issue of concern with cross border and overseas migration is HIV and AIDS. In recent years, an increasing number of migrant workers from Asia have been diagnosed with HIV in various countries in the Arab States. Deportations due to HIV status have resulted in severe economic loss for migrant workers and their families, who have been declared by local authorities as "unfit" to work abroad.

Governments from Asian countries have also been concerned about this issue. The Ministers of Health from the Governments of Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India, the Philippines and Bangladesh called for a meeting on the issue at the time of the World Health Assembly of 2007 highlighting the need to engage in inter regional dialogue with countries from the Arab States region to find ways to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities to HIV that migrant workers face..


  The purpose of this study was commissioned to shed light on the complex relationship between migration and HIV vulnerability, with a special focus on the vulnerabilities faced by Asian migrant women.

Through in-depth and focus group discussions, the study discloses the vulnerabilities that Asian migrant women encounter throughout the migration cycle. They often leave for overseas work under unsafe conditions, live in very difficult circumstances, and are often targets of sexual exploitation and violence before they depart, during their transit and stay in host countries and on return to their countries of origin. With little or no access to health services and social protection, these factors combine to make Asian women migrants highly vulnerable to HIV.

Confronted with inadequate policies and legislation that are not enforceable in host countries, migrant women often have limited or no access to justice and redress mechanisms, especially in Gulf countries. If they are found HIV positive, they face deportation and back in their countries of origin they experience discrimination and social isolation in addition to the difficulty of finding alternative livelihoods.

  As the research shows, there are several good practices from both countries of origin  and host countries that are making a difference to migrant's lives, from the bilateral agreements negotiated between the Philippines and host countries, to social protection afforded to migrants in Lebanon. It is the intention of this study to highlight emerging good practice, deepen our understanding of the linkages between HIV and migration to inform and shape more effective policy and programme responses for Asian migrant women that will ensure safe mobility with dignity, equity and justice.

Read more>>

Organization: CARAM ASIA

CARAM Asia 报告











Asia Report 编译


机构:CARAM Asia

The United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV & AIDS passed a Declaration of Commitment in 2001 and Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS in 2006 to fight against the spread of HIV. In the Declaration member countries committed to regularly submit a country report, every two year. ARAM Asia organized a capacity building workshop to enhance the understanding on UNGASS reporting mechanisms and to mobiles advocacy efforts in respective countries. After the capacity building workshop majority of members became very active in implementing the work plan developed in the workshop to meet the objectives.  Following is the summary of member's engagement at national level which shows the momentum developed and successful advocacy efforts for the purpose.


Summary of Member's Engagement at National Level to Implement Planned Advocacy Strategy  

The Capacity Building Workshop on the UNGASS Reporting Mechanisms for CARAM Asia Members in South Asia as well as in Southeast Asia who are members of Migration, Health & HIV Task Force was very successful in enlightening members on the concerned issues and ways of getting involved in reporting process at government level and with UNAIDS team in their respective countries.  During the workshop different obstacles were identified which need to be addressed to pursue the UNGASS reporting process for the inclusion of migrant workers HIV issues in the report.  The participants developed a work plan comprised on advocacy activities to address the identified obstacles and to get involved into the process. 
  After the workshop in Nepal on 5th and 6th December 2009, most of the members were very active in implementing advocacy activities and approaching National AIDS Control Programmes, relevant government agencies and UNAIDS in their countries to met the objectives.  Members are still engaged in advocacy measures; however some of the shared country-wise details of taken actions are given below:

  OKUP has approached the Programme Manager at National AIDS and STD Programme working under Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Bangladesh.  Mr. Shakil from OKUP discussed with him the matter related to inclusion of migrant workers' HIV & AIDS issues into the report.  OKUP is also in contact with concerned officers at UNAIDS in Bangladesh to advocate for the inclusion of migrant worker's issues into the National Strategic Plan and had informal discussion on UNGASS reporting matters. 

 Additionally OKUP has conducted a situation assessment study on HIV preventive education for labour migrants commissioned by IOM in collaboration with UNAIDS. The research results provide a substantive ground to have an advocacy meeting to promote the HIV issue of labour migrants.


 Rights Jessore issued a press release on the occasion of International Migrants' Day (18th Dec) and included related issues from joint statement developed in the workshop for media advocacy. 
SHOSTI is also in process of submitting CARAM Asia Policy Brief on Mandatory Testing and Joint Statement to high level government officials as advocacy efforts.


Cambodia, CARAM Cambodia
  The resource person Dr. Kem Ley is a consultant for government of Cambodia to lead the process of writing UNGASS report for the country.  While sharing his experiences he also learned about migrant's issues and included the subject into his report and shared the Cambodia UNGASS Report-NCPI with CARAM Cambodia and all other concerned members.  The achievements, challenges and recommendations concerning to the rights of migrant workers and mobility were included into the report. 

  On 18th January 2010, SP and UNIMIG have joined as new members of UNGASS FORUM Indonesia. To push for the inclusion of migrant worker's issues into national UNGASS report.  The CARAM member's participation has resulted in a development that migrant workers issues will be included in the UNGASS report of Indonesia. 

 Additionally UNGASS Forum Indonesia planed to submit a parallel report of UNGASS-Indonesia, for that SP and UNIMIG arranged to have a meeting with the coordinator of UNGASS Forum Indonesia to discuss especially about migrant workers issues. 

  The CSO Forum decided to write a shadow report on UNGASS 2010.  SP made sure the inclusion of migrant worker's issues in the shadow report which covers various concerned areas on the subject.  Being member of CSO Forum, SP received invitation to attend a meeting organized by NAC to share the country report prepared by Indonesian government and get inputs on migrant worker's HIV & AIDS related issues. 

Japan, SHARE
  SHARE identified lead CSOs in Japan working for UNGASS which include [Africa Japan Forum (AJF), Japan AIDS & Society (JAS), Japanese network of people living with HIV/AIDS (JaNP+)].  They networked with other CSOs [SHARE, CHARM, and CRIATIVOS] working on migrant rights and HIV to include migrant's HIV & AIDS related issues in UNGASS 2010 report.  


Sri Lanka, CDS
CDS is flagging the concerns on migrant worker's HIV related issues to the UNGASS working group same as CARAM's concerns.  Due to efforts currently there is some mention on MWs in the NCPI part B; however that is not at the larger policy level.

Thailand Raks,  Thai Foundation

For the UNGASS reporting - Raks Thai Foundation is involved in the sub-committee on migrant and refugee populations on the UNGASS report. They have already submitted a "best practices" section and will submit another small section reporting on their work under the PHAMIT Project and other relevant statistics as available.

Vietnam, IHED

Following the discussion on Advocacy measures in the UNGASS training workshop, IHED in Vietnam  carried out the first two activities:
1. Identified the lead CSOs in Vietnam on UNGASS reporting: ISDS (Institute for Social Development Studies - its website is http://www.isds.org.vn) and UNGASS civil society forum in Vietnam

(its website is http://www.vcspa.org.vn/DetailIntroduction.aspx?IntroID=4) 
2. IHED have sent them registration form to be one of their forum's members. This will take some time, but IHED can meet all their requirements for registration, so IHED can network with them.


The Gulf is a major destination for migrant workers, particularly those from Southern Asia and South East Asia. Gulf countries are also widely known for the consistent and endemic violations perpetrated against migrant workers. When it comes to the death penalty, the number of migrants who are killed by judicial execution is grossly disproportional to the size of their populations. 

Discrimination on the basis of religion, nationality and ethnicity are common human rights violations in most Gulf States. Migrants from Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Sudan, Ethiopia, and numerous other countries travel to the Gulf States to work mainly in the domestic work or low-skilled labor sectors. These workers routinely experience restrictions on their freedom of expression, religion and religious practice, access to justice, access to healthcare, the withholding of passports, threats, physical, verbal or sexual abuse, non-payment of wages, as well as unsafe and unhygienic living and working conditions.


As this report shows, the weight of the executioner's sword falls heaviest on those who are most vulnerable in Gulf societies. Legal and procedural problems, lapses in implementation of law, judgments of questionable validity, lack of access to support and assistance all contribute to the highly disproportional number of migrant's killed using the death penalty by these states. Justice, as we have seen, is not blind - it knows nationality, race, language and money, and the harshest penalties in are reserved for those among the least able to defend themselves.

To the governments of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia;
• To declare a suspension on judicial executions.
• To uphold and ensure the implementation of the highest standards of judicial practice - including open, free and fair trials
• To ensure access to legal representation for all defendants facing the death penalty
• To provide access to information and translation services for migrants at all relevant legal and governmental institutions.
To representatives of sending countries;
• Sending countries should stop prioritizing remittances over the life, health, happiness, rights and safety of their nationals.
• To establish consular or embassy level presence in Gulf states
• To assign a legal envoy to deal with labour issues
• To provide legal information, assistance and representation to nationals who cannot afford it themselves
• To provide information to all migrants about their rights and the laws of the receiving country in own language

To Local NGO's, social, and charitable organizations;
• To provide assistance to embassy staff in producing and disseminating informational material for migrant workers
• To provide assistance and follow-up support work to migrant workers involved in legal disputes
To media organizations in receiving countries;
• To cease media campaigns inciting racial hatred against migrant workers
• To provide consistent, fair and accurate coverage of migrant issues 

Edited by Asia Report



CARAM Cambodia

Rights Jessore

Rak Thai Foundation


Solidaritas Perempuan (SP)

Union Migrant Indonesia(UNIMIG)



地址:45, 1st Lane,Gothami Road,Colombo 8,Sri Lanka
电话:00 94 1 2697731, 2682080
传真 00 94 1 2682080
手机:+94 777 34 1110 (Andrew)
Email: cds@eureka.lk


















      Rights Jessore于国际移民日(1218日)发表了一则新闻,其中包括研讨会期间制定的与媒体宣传联合声明有关的议题。




柬埔寨艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织(CARAM Cambodia)

      提供信息的人士Kem Ley博士是柬埔寨政府的顾问,负责该国撰写联大特别会议的报告。提供他的经验的同时,Kem Ley博士也了解了移民的问题并将这些问题纳入了他的报告。 他并且与柬埔寨艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织以及所有其他有关的成员互相交流了联大特别会议柬埔寨部分的报告 - 国家综合政策指数。该报告囊括了与移民工人及其移徙的权利有关的所取得的成就,遇到的挑战以及提出的建议。


Solidaritas Perempuan




     民间社会组织论坛决定撰写一份关于2010年联大特别会议的非正式报告。SP确保了移民工人的问题被纳入涵盖与议题有关各个领域的非正式报告中。 作为民间组织论坛的成员,SP受邀参加了一个由NAC举办的会议,对印度尼西亚政府关于该国的报告以及移民工人与艾滋病有关的问题进行了交流和了解。


确定了为联大特别会议工作的主要日本民间社会组织, 其中包括非洲日本论坛(AJF),日本艾滋病与社会(JAS),日本艾滋病患者网络组织(JaNP+。他们与其他民间社会组织 [SHARE, CHARM, CRIATIVOS] 构建成了一个网络,在将移民权利和艾滋病问题纳入联大特别会议2010年报告的工作中相互协作。




泰国Raks Thai Foundation







1. 确定了在越南涉及联大特别会议报告机制的主要民间社会组织:ISDS(社会发展研究学会 - 其网址是http://www.isds.org.vn)和在越南的联大特别会议民间社会论坛(其网址是http://www.vcspa.org.vn/DetailIntroduction.aspx?IntroID=4


2. 健康环境和发展学会向联大特别会议民间社会论坛递交了成为其会员的申请表。虽然还需要一些时间,但健康环境和发展学会符合政策条件。如此,健康环境和发展学会将能够与其他组织相互进行合作。







正如这份报告所揭示,在海湾地区最弱势的群体最容易成为牺牲品。法律和程序问题,执法律上的失误,判决是否公正,得不到支持和援助等导致了海湾国家的移民被处死的人数极不成比例。于是我们看到,在这些国家里,司法是有偏见的 - 基于不同的国籍,种族,语言甚至于财富等因素,那些最弱势最无法保护自己的群体往往受到最严厉的对待和处罚。




•维护和确保执行司法的最高标准 - 包括公开,自由和公正的审判






Asia Report编译




CARAM Cambodia

Rights Jessore

Rak Thai Foundation


Solidaritas Perempuan (SP)

Union Migrant Indonesia(UNIMIG)











合国开发计划署 - 2009310



《国家》 - 20092



改革的权利, 第一部分

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