印尼: March 2011的归档

The Jakarta Globe

Dessy Sagita

Efforts to fight the spread of HIV/AIDS are being held back by health workers' reluctance to treat high-risk groups including transsexuals, gays and bisexuals, officials have warned.

Rohana Manggala, head of the Jakarta branch of the Commission on HIV/AIDS Prevention (KPA), said on Thursday that health facilities in the capital needed to be more inclusive.

"Generally, health services for HIV/AIDS tests and treatment is getting better, but we have to admit there are still many health workers who attach strong stigma to certain groups," she said.

To tackle this problem, she said Governor Fauzi Bowo had asked the KPA to draft policies that would allow transsexuals, gays and bisexuals to access health services more freely.

Rohana said the KPA would provide sensitivity training beginning in the middle of the year at five selected puskesmas , community health centers, in each of Jakarta's five municipalities.

She said health workers would be given a deeper understanding about the affected minority groups and how to treat them without discomfort or prejudice.

"This is just a pilot project. If it's successful, we'll continue to other puskesmas and hopefully the government will support us with funding," she said.

Tono Purnama Muhammad, national coordinator for a gay and transsexual network, said many of his group's members were reluctant to seek health services because of the stigma.

"Most health facilities in Jakarta provide health services for sexually transmitted infections and voluntary counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS, but only a few have proper understanding about gays, bisexuals and transgendered people," he said. "As a result, many people from this community are reluctant to have themselves checked because they don't want to be judged."

Rohana said getting the word out to gay men about the importance of health checks was difficult because they tended to conceal their sexual orientation.

"We're campaigning for greater awareness at schools so teenagers who are sexually active, with the same sex or the opposite sex, can protect themselves," she said.

The Health Ministry reported that as of December, there were more than 24,000 AIDS cases in Indonesia, of which about 4,000 were in Jakarta.

In 2008, the United Nations estimated that as many as 300,000 Indonesians were living with HIV/AIDS.


Organization:the Commission on HIV/AIDS Prevention (KPA)

The Jakarta Globe

供稿:Dessy Sagita


艾滋防治委员会雅加达分会的负责人Rohana Manggala指出,印尼首都的医疗服务应该更具包容性。"总体来说,艾滋检测与治疗等医疗服务均有所改善,但是我们不得不承认很多医护人员对某些群体仍持有偏见。"她说。

为了解决这个问题,她表示市长Fauzi Bowo先生已要求KPA起草相关政策,帮助跨性别者、男同以及双性恋群体更自由地获得医疗服务。Rohanna指出KPA将在雅加达市的5个行政区分别选出5个健康中心,从年中开始推出敏感性训练。


男同与跨性别者网络的国家总协调人Tono Purnama Muhammad指出,由于医护人员所持有的偏见,导致该网络的很多成员不愿意寻求医疗救助。"雅加达的很多医护中心都提供性传播疾病的治疗、艾滋检测以及咨询。但是大部分工作人员都对跨性别者、男同以及双性恋群体缺乏理解。由于不愿被人指指点点,导致最终很多来自该群体的病患拒绝前往接受检查。"




机构:the Commission on HIV/AIDS Prevention (KPA)


 "The cue ball should always be in between the cue and the pink ball. The same kind of protection you need between you and your partner."

Safe sex art by artist duo Tagra and Thukral : a billiard game. The table is covered with a flower pattern - and the cue ball symbolises a condom.

By Aletta Andre

At the duo's exhibition Put it on, again! it's hard to say if the group of visiting students are interested in the symbolism. But they certainly have fun playing the game.

Most of the work in the exhibition is less subtle. The prizes for the game winners, for example, include a pair of flip-flops featuring a picture of a condom, while one painting shows Superman surrounded by women in lingerie.

The most important goal, says Sumir Tagra, is to get people talking. "The government's effort to promote safe sex through campaigns is all very indirect. We think it should be more interactive. It's usually too removed from reality. People learn about HIV, but no one talks about the act that leads to it."

Students in particular were invited to the exhibition at Gallery Nature Morte in New Delhi. Anukar (19) says he knows "everything about sex". He gained his wisdom at school, but not from the teachers.

"I know from talking with my friends, and from the internet. The teachers just tell us what HIV means and that we should wait until marriage. But this is not the reality. All my friends have had sex already."

Wedding night
For Netu (22), who is accompanying a group of children from different schools, waiting until marriage was the reality. And before her wedding night two years ago, she says, she knew nothing about sex.

"It was not discussed at school, or amongst my friends or even my sisters and cousins. And we had no internet when I was in school. I wish I had known certain things earlier, but it's OK now."

Netu sounds confident and comfortable discussing the topic. The younger girls in the group, all around 17 years old, are more hesitant to speak out, but pay close attention when Jiten Thukral and Sumir Tagra tell the group about their art work.

They use Superman to represent the ideal man and he's wearing a latex suit for protection. He's surrounded by lots of women to point out that people do have multiple partners. And the women's different skin colours show the issue is universal.

Another painting is an image taken from an ancient Hindu temple that has sculptures of people in all kinds of sexual positions. The painting is half covered with a sheet. "Sex is there in Indian culture, but people don't talk about it," Tagra explains.

In a similar way, the duo has designed a wall paper with repeating figures of male and female limbs covered by two flowers - "just like in old Bollywood movies."

Anukar is impressed. "All my friends use condoms. But we are a bit hesitant to go to the shop for them. You never know what the shop keeper thinks about you, because condoms are for sex and we are not married. But seeing the image of the condom here is encouraging. It's good to see that art can be used for a message."



Some might fear persecution being gay in the country that has the largest Muslim population in the world. But in Indonesia a huge gay film festival is held every year. What does is really mean to be gay in Indonesia?

John Badalu has been organizing the Q! Film Festival for the past 10 years. It is the biggest gay film festival in Asia and the only one of its kind in a country with a majority of Muslim inhabitants. The 38-year-old says it is possible to live a pretty free life as a homosexual in Indonesia's big cities but the challenges are increasing.


Last year, the Q! Film Festival was attacked by the radical Islamic Defenders Front (FPI), which accused Badalu and his team of showing pornographic films. They threatened to burn down the venues if the festival was not stopped.


Convinced that his organization was on firm ground, Badalu and his team refused and the festival was held in five big cities. A few months before, an international gay conference that was supposed to be held in Surabaya in East Java had been cancelled after coming under attack from the same radical group.


Badalu is not overly concerned. He says it is not just gay people that FPI is targeting, but also other minorities such as members of the Islamic movement Ahmadiyya.


"If anything is against Islam in their interpretation, they will go against it, they will go and bash them," explained Badalu further. However, according to Badalu, there has never been gay bashing in Indonesia.


No special treatment from the government


He also adds that Indonesia cannot be compared to other Muslim countries such as Iran where people have been executed because of their sexual orientation. In Indonesia, there is no law to do with homosexuality.

Many see this as an advantage but Hartoyo from "Our Voice," an NGO that fights for the rights of homosexuals and bisexuals in Indonesia, is of another opinion.


"The government does not give special protection to the Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender community,"  he complained. He added that they needed special treatment so they can finally access their civil rights, in the areas of politics, economics, social and culture.


Hartoyo was himself beaten up in public a few years ago when he was living with his partner in Aceh. When he went to the police station, he was "treated like an animal."


After waiting for more than 18 months, four of his seven tormentors were given probation and a 10-cent fine. Hartoyo says he is still traumatized by the incident, which he says is a clear example of the state not guaranteeing his rights as a citizen.


Big pressure to get married

The challenges are often from society. There are certain fields where gays are openly accepted, especially television and advertising but there have been cases of people being fired because of their sexual orientation in other sectors.


Many transsexuals do not have ID cards because they are reluctant to go through the bureaucratic procedures as they are often made fun of by civil servants. This means that many do not have access to free health insurance.


Dede Oetomo, the co-founder of the first homosexual organization in Indonesia, says that in the past 20 years societal pressure to marry generally has become stronger, and especially for gay people. Many families think that their children's sexual orientation might change if they get married.


"It's actually the family that is the scariest to many gay men and lesbians in Indonesia," Oetomo says. "Telling your mum and dad ' I'm not getting married, I'm not giving you children.'"


Because of this kind of pressure, there are mainly two alternatives - either gays and lesbians decide to get married just to please the family or they run away from them.


Strong feeling of shame


Laura Coppens, a film producer from Berlin who is making a film about lesbian women in Indonesia called the "Children of Srikandi," thinks most Indonesian people are generally tolerant towards homosexuals but prefer not to talk about it because of the strong culture of shame or malu in Indonesian.


She says that one woman in the film said that she was not accepted by her family anymore because she was a lesbian and the family felt ashamed.


The strong feeling of malu is very important in the Indonesian society, says Coppens who is also writing a thesis at the University of Zürich on lesbian women in Indonesia.


"It is funny though, because if you don't talk about stuff in Indonesia, then it doesn't bother anyone. There are cases of lesbian couples who live happily in their neighborhood and nobody cares about them."


"It becomes a problem only if you talk about it," she says.


Oetomo agrees on this point, mentioning the example of transsexuals who are popular as entertainers, but not if they are your relatives.


This is why many Indonesian transsexuals run away from home, without any educational background or skills, says Hartoyo.


Ironically, he adds, the place that is supposed to be the safest sometimes turns out to be a very dangerous one for transsexuals.


Like in many other countries, life for homosexuals is not easy in Indonesia. Experts also see the need for the Indonesian government to improve conditions by fostering a culture of discussion or providing more sexual education.


But for film festival organizer John Badalu, it is also the duty of each homosexual to fight for his or her own freedom and to say - I have the same right to live as any other citizen.


Author: Anggatira Gollmer

Editor: Ziphora Robina


Organization: Q-Munity


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作者: Anggatira Gollmer

编辑: Ziphora Robina



       去年,Q!电影节遭到遭到激进组织"伊斯兰防卫者战线"(Islamic Defenders Front)攻击,他们谴责巴达鲁和他的工作团队播放色情电影,并威胁如果不立即停止将烧毁剧院。




       很多人认为这是一个优势,但来自致力于为印尼同性恋和双性恋争取权利的非政府组织"我们的声音"(Our Voice)的Hartoyo有不同的意见。





      因害怕遭到公务人员的耻笑, 很多变性者不愿意申请身份证。这就意味着他们无法获得免费医疗保险。


       这种压力导致两种情况出现:1.形式婚姻:很多男女同性恋决定结婚,以取悦其父母对儿女婚姻的渴望。或者2. 干脆直接离家出走。


      来自柏林的电影制作人 劳拉·柯本制作了关于印尼的女同电影《Srikandi的孩子们》,她表示在印尼,通常人们对同性恋是持有容忍态度的,但因为印尼文化中强烈的羞耻感,大部分人选择不公开谈论同性恋问题。





       但是对于电影节策展人 约翰·巴达鲁来说,为争取更多的自由是同性恋群体自身的责任。

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    印尼同性恋电影节--Q!Film Festival由Q-Munity组织召开。Q-Munity成立于2002年。一群关注印尼艺术管理的自由撰稿记者在一次闲聊中萌发出成立该组织的主意。他们希望增进公众对表演艺术和电影的认识和欣赏。Q-Munity的第一个项目是组织Q!电影放映(Q! Film Screening)活动,20029月,他们组织了一个为期5天的电影放映,向公众播放了20余部男、女同性恋和变性者有关的电影。该次放映吸引了1500多名观众,根据所收到的回执中反映,大部分观众对该次放映的回响都非常好,很多人甚至建议在今后应该定期举办此类活动。因此,Q-Munity决定把放映活动设置为一年一次,并准备扩展到印尼其他城市。


    20039月,Q-Munity将放映活动以电影节的形式展开。称其为电影节的原因是Q! Film Festival无论从影片数量、放映场次、场馆数量以及放映期间来说都超过很多国际电影节,例如雅加达国际电影节、英国电影节、法国电影界等。除此以外,电影节期间还举办了丰富多彩的活动,例如画展、6名男、女同性恋摄影师的摄影展、纽约小说家Jamie James的座谈会等。长达10天的电影节吸引了4000名观众。






  The unprecedented economic growth and social and economic inequalities that Asia is experiencing combine to create complex  push and pull factors that have led to large movements of people in the region.  At any given point in time, there are an estimated 54 million people on the move outside of their home countries within Asia and beyond, and almost half that number, are estimated to be women. Asia is one of the largest suppliers of international migrant women who serve as domestic workers.

Outside Asia, the countries of the Arab States region are the primary destination for a majority of migrant workers from the Philippines, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The economic gains generated by migrant workers to both countries of origin and host countries are considerable reaching almost 8% of GDP in Sri Lanka and as high as 17% of the national GDP in the Philippines.  Yet, there is a major disconnect between the economic contribution of migrant workers and the poor conditions and meager support many receive throughout their migration journey.

A key issue of concern with cross border and overseas migration is HIV and AIDS. In recent years, an increasing number of migrant workers from Asia have been diagnosed with HIV in various countries in the Arab States. Deportations due to HIV status have resulted in severe economic loss for migrant workers and their families, who have been declared by local authorities as "unfit" to work abroad.

Governments from Asian countries have also been concerned about this issue. The Ministers of Health from the Governments of Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India, the Philippines and Bangladesh called for a meeting on the issue at the time of the World Health Assembly of 2007 highlighting the need to engage in inter regional dialogue with countries from the Arab States region to find ways to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities to HIV that migrant workers face..


  The purpose of this study was commissioned to shed light on the complex relationship between migration and HIV vulnerability, with a special focus on the vulnerabilities faced by Asian migrant women.

Through in-depth and focus group discussions, the study discloses the vulnerabilities that Asian migrant women encounter throughout the migration cycle. They often leave for overseas work under unsafe conditions, live in very difficult circumstances, and are often targets of sexual exploitation and violence before they depart, during their transit and stay in host countries and on return to their countries of origin. With little or no access to health services and social protection, these factors combine to make Asian women migrants highly vulnerable to HIV.

Confronted with inadequate policies and legislation that are not enforceable in host countries, migrant women often have limited or no access to justice and redress mechanisms, especially in Gulf countries. If they are found HIV positive, they face deportation and back in their countries of origin they experience discrimination and social isolation in addition to the difficulty of finding alternative livelihoods.

  As the research shows, there are several good practices from both countries of origin  and host countries that are making a difference to migrant's lives, from the bilateral agreements negotiated between the Philippines and host countries, to social protection afforded to migrants in Lebanon. It is the intention of this study to highlight emerging good practice, deepen our understanding of the linkages between HIV and migration to inform and shape more effective policy and programme responses for Asian migrant women that will ensure safe mobility with dignity, equity and justice.

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