印度: March 2011的归档

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    印度艺术家Thukral Tagra近日举办安全性行为艺术展《台球比赛》。他们把台球桌用花纹装饰,其中白球象征着安全套。

    Tagra表示最重要的目标是号召公众公开讨论性问题:"政府所发起的促进安全性行为的倡导很拐弯抹角。我们觉得对于这个问题应该用更具互动性的方法来倡导。过去这种倡导常常远离现实。大家学习艾滋病相关知识,但是却没人讨论感染艾滋病的途径。"

    Thukral Tagra 塑造了一个超人模型来代表完美的男人,它身着乳胶服装以保护自己。同时,在他周围摆放一些女性模型,传达人有多个伴侣之意。这些女性模型的肤色各异,代表这是一个全球性的事件。

    另一幅画呈现了某古印度教寺庙里持各种不同性交姿势的雕塑。而这幅画被一张纸盖住了一半。Tagra解释说:"印度文化中并不忌讳谈论性,但是现实生活中人们却不愿提及。"


Asia Report编译


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201133,国际性工作者权利日,新闻稿


   律师联盟Lawyers Collective)于31在印度新德里举行会议,邀请性工作者和国会议员会面,与会的国会议员包括:Mani Shanker Iyer, Basudev Acharia Oscar Fernandes。会议上议员们表达了对为性工作者赋权的强烈支持,并谴责了为性工作者带来恐惧的法律。国家卫生和家庭福利部部长Dinesh Trivedi响应改革号召,在会议上对参会的200名性工作者表示:"我们有很多法律非但没起到积极的促进作用,相反还在社会福利和进步方面制造了许多困难。这样的法律,我认为必须改变。"

     Bharti Dey形容此次同国会议员的会议"积极并鼓舞人心",她表示:"所有人都认为性工作者有权利尊严地活着。" 国会议员Sk. Saidul Haque博士表示,尊重的前提是必须承认性工作也是一种工作。J.D Sellam议员认为尊严代表着脱离污名化的生活。Dey进一步说:"所有议员都不断声明,刑事定罪是对性工作者尊严的践踏,必须予以消除。" 政治家们也注意到尽管一些人可能认为性工作是不道德的,但这并不等同于违法行为。

     特地从金奈赶到新德里参加会议的Kokila表示:"孟买议员Priya Dutt对我们说,作为从事特殊职业的女性,我们仍有权利获得安全、健康和应有的生计来源。"

     这恰恰和最高法院的言论相反,最高法院近日声明性工作者应该放弃从事性服务而寻找其它工作。Veena表示:"这种同情完全站不住脚。我们需要的是实际有效的方法来保护我们免受刑事法的压迫。如果我们不想在招揽顾客的时候被捕,就必须依靠皮条客来拉生意。"

    "我们将劝说国会议员对这个复杂但却紧迫的问题展开讨论"Tripti Tandon说。现行的法律存在问题,我们必须对其进行修改。性工作者将继续进行这场胜负难分的战斗。33,她们上街游行呼吁实现其法律权利。

 

Asia Report 翻译


原文链接:http://www.lawyerscollective.org/news/97-press-release-3rd-march-2011-international-day-of-sex-workers-rights.html


机构:律师联盟Lawyers Collective




Press Release, 3rd March 2011, International Day of Sex Workers Rights


  Organized by the Lawyers Collective on 1st March in New Delhi, the interaction between sex workers and law makers saw several prominent MPs including Mani Shanker Iyer, Basudev Acharia and Oscar Fernandes express firm support for empowerment and give thumbs down to laws that create fear among sex workers. Echoing the need for reform, Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare, Dinesh Trivedi, told the 200 sex workers in attendance - "Many laws, instead of helping, get in the way of progress and welfare, and such laws, I say, must change."  

  Describing their meeting with MPs as "positive and encouraging," Bharti Dey reflected - "everyone agreed that sex workers have the right to live with dignity."  While some Parliamentarians like Prof. Sk. Saidul Haque, felt that respect could be accorded by recognizing sex work as work, others like J.D Seelam were of the opinion that dignity means not living a stigmatized life. "But all MPs unanimously stated that criminalization affronts sex workers' dignity and must be done away with." Politicians also observed that while one may consider sex work immoral, that does not make it illegal.

  "In her message, Mumbai M.P Priya Dutt addressed us as women with an unconventional job, who are entitled to security, health and livelihood" - exclaimed Kokila, who travelled all the way from Chennai to talk to law makers about her profession.

  This approach is in contrast to the recent observations of the Supreme Court that wanted sex workers to give up their work and take up other vocations. "This is feeble sympathy", remarked Veena. "What we need are practical measures that free us from exploitative elements, which are a creation of criminal law itself. If we can't solicit clients without getting arrested, we will naturally rely on pimps to carry on our trade."

  "We will pursue the suggestions of MPs to raise debate on this complex yet pressing issue" - said Tripti Tandon.  All is not well with the current law and there is a critical need for change. Sex workers have a long drawn battle ahead. This 3rd March, they have made significant strides towards realizing legal rights.    


Weblink: http://www.lawyerscollective.org/news/97-press-release-3rd-march-2011-international-day-of-sex-workers-rights.html


Organization:Lawyers Collective


 



Report of the Satellite Session at the XVIII International AIDS Conference

Vienna, 18-23 July, 2010

 

Organized by:

Lawyer Collective HIV/AIDS Unit

 

Abstract 

Across the world, law(s) regulating sex work reflect contesting ideologies, political priorities and policy interests. Common law countries do not criminalize sex work per se but restrict its practice by prohibiting brothels, living on earnings of sex work, procuring and soliciting. Countries like Netherlands, Germany and Austria license brothels and tolerate „red light zones. Still others, like Sweden penalize the purchase of sexual services while decriminalizing women selling sex. Internationally, the adoption of the protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children in 2000 has put pressure on countries to introduce overbroad penal measures, which, often tend to penalize voluntary, adult sex work. 

 

Law affects sex work practices and risk in multiple ways. Occupational health and safety can be prioritized in countries that regulate sex work. In such places, HIV prevention is introduced through structural rather than individual behavior change. Collective resistance to violence can be fostered in places where sex work is not illegal. Community led norms of "no condom, no sex" in parts of India and Bangladesh demonstrate this model. On the other hand, criminalization drives sex work underground, increasing  the risk of unsafe sex and undermining efforts to contain sexually transmitted infections. While the adverse consequences of criminal law have been documented, there is little evidence for good legislative models that protect sex workers rights and promote public health. Such an analysis is of relevance to countries where unprotected paid sex is the main driver of the HIV epidemic. 

 

The session intended to examine different legal frameworks for sex work and their impact on sex workers lives as well as HIV transmission in paid sex. Speakers included sex workers, public health experts and legal professionals from countries that regulate, prohibit or decriminalize commercial sex. The presenters identified specific policy elements that empower or disempower sex workers and how they fuel or reduce the risk of HIV. They also discussed the tension underlying sex work law reform including gender, human trafficking and other political stimuli. Facilitators discussed the findings and suggested ways to influence the legal environment for sex work.


Download PDF:http://www.lawyerscollective.org/files/Sex%20Work%20Legislation%20Solution%20or%20Problem%20-%20Report.pdf


Organization:Lawyer Collective

报告:

性工作立法:是出路还是灾难?

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卫星会议报告


组织方:Lawyer Collective(律师联盟)HIV/AIDS小组

18届国际艾滋会议

2010718-23

奥地利维也纳

 

摘要

 

     纵观全球,法律对性工作的监管反映了备受争议的意识形态、政治优先权以及政策倾向。英美法系国家并不针对性工作予以定罪,但通过禁止性交易场所、以性服务为生的生计方式、拉皮条等活动来限制性工作的发生。

 

     法律通过以下几种方式影响性工作及其所承担的风险。职业健康与安全应作为国家监管性工作的首选政策指导。这样才能从结构上,而非从通过改变个人行为,来预防 艾滋病毒的传播。对性行为的刑事定罪导致性工作者转移地下,增加了不安全性行为的风险以及性疾病传播率。尽管刑事法对性工作监管所产生的不利影响已被广泛记录,但迄今为止仍未出台有利于性工作者人权和公共卫生的立法模式。

 

     本次会议意在研讨不同的法律框架如何影响性工作监管、性工作者的生活,以及艾滋病毒通过有偿性服务传染的状况。大会发言人将在以下的讨论中指出哪些政策促进 对性工作者的赋权;这些政策如何增加或降低艾滋传播风险。同时他们也针对性服务的法律改革所面临的潜在张力,包括社会性别、人口贩卖以及其它政治促因。研讨的结果以及建议将推动性工作的法律环境。


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全文PDF下载:http://www.lawyerscollective.org/files/Sex%20Work%20Legislation%20Solution%20or%20Problem%20-%20Report.pdf


机构: Lawyer Collective--律师联盟



The Times of India

新德里

      来自印度和亚洲其它国家的众多艾滋病毒携带者于周三集会,他们从兰丽拉广场游行至天文台,抗议欧盟和印度达成的自由贸易协定,该协议所含条款将大大限制病患获得廉价药物。


      印度签订的自由贸易协定不仅给印度人民带来影响,而且将影响其它发展中国家那些依靠印度制药公司提供价格低廉质量上乘的药品的人们。


      虽然政府官员已声称自由贸易协定的任何条款都不会对印度生产低价特效药产生影响,但是事实上,印度政府并不是制定协议条款的一方,而这些条款恰恰引起大众对其内容的实质产生强烈的怀疑。


      自由贸易协定中最具毁灭性的条款之一是对数据专有权的承认。由于国会并没有考虑到这将有利于印度人民对廉价药品的需求,因此目前印度的专利法并不认可这项规定。数据专有权意味着一家公司临床试验的数据文件不能被其他任何公司使用。


      每家公司必须生产自己的临床试验数据,不同的公司对同一种药品进行临床和临床前效用进行重复的实验,这对资源也会造成巨大浪费。另外,一家公司所提交的数据将会受到五至十年保护,以防止其它同等效用的非专利仿制药品注册。


Asia Report 翻译

原文链接:http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-03-03/india-business/28650530_1_data-exclusivity-eu-india-fta-medicines


机构:ICPT



The Times of India

  NEW DELHI: Thousands of HIV positive people from India and across Asia marched from Ramlila ground to Jantar Mantar on Wednesday to protest against the free trade agreement (FTA) between European Union (EU) and India, which has provisions that would restrict access to affordable medicines.

  India signing the FTA would affect not only the people of India but also the people in several other developing countries that depend on Indian manufacturers for good quality affordable medicines.

  Though government officials have been claiming that none of the provisions in the FTA would affect India's ability to produce cheap and effective medicines, the fact that the government is not making the documents of the agreement public is raising suspicion about the actual nature of the contents.

  One of the most damaging provisions in the FTA is the grant of data exclusivity, something that the Indian Patent Law does not allow at present as Parliament did not think this would work in the interest of the Indian public's need for affordable medicines. Data exclusivity would mean that clinical trial data filed by one company cannot be relied upon by any other company.

  Each company will have to produce its own clinical trial data, which would be a waste of resources as different companies subject people to repeat clinical and pre-clinical trials to prove the efficacy of the same drug. Moreover data submitted by a company will be protected for five to ten years preventing the registration of equally effective generic medicines during the time.


Weblink: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-03-03/india-business/28650530_1_data-exclusivity-eu-india-fta-medicines


Organization: ITPC

 

台湾露德协会


      据预测,抗逆转录病毒药物的销售将在2015年后下降,20152019年,其复合年增长率将下降到-1.7%    在未来3年(到2013年),七大市场的HIV药物销售将以复合年增长率5.7%的速度扩张。不过,随着一些重点产品的专利到期,这种盛况将很快发生变化。

 

      过去10年来,使用抗逆转录病毒药物来治疗HIV病毒的成本费用已经大幅下降。世界卫生组织表示,仅在20082009年间,6只最常用的初始治疗药物(或一线治疗药物)在中低收入国家里的价格下降幅度就在1%36%之间。

 

      药价下降的背后有多种原因,其中包括仿制药不断进入市场,以及制药公司提供了优惠的价格政策。但是,如果你关注的目光不仅仅落在一线药物在那些贫穷国

 

主力产品销售强劲  

 

      根据市场调查研究机构Datamonitor公司提供的资料,2009年,在美国、日本、法国、德国、西班牙、意大利和英国七大市场上,HIV抗逆转录病毒药物的总销售额达到了118亿美元。

 

      这意味着,20052009年间抗逆转录病毒药物以复合年增长率10%的速度增长。美国仍是全球最大的市场,2009年抗逆转录病毒药物的销售额为77亿美元。法国是欧洲最大的市场,其销售额为11亿美元,而日本整体来说市场规模最小。

 

      从病人数量来看,这七大市场感染HIV的人数从2001年的140万增加到了2009年的180万,预计在未来10年里这一数字将会进一步增加。美国预计将继续坐稳抗逆转录病毒药物销售的第一把交椅,根据Datamonitor的预测,到2019年,抗逆转录病毒药物在美国的销售将占七大市场60%的份额。日本的市场规模预计仍将最小。

 

      抗逆转录病毒药物近年来的迅猛增长主要得益于TruvadaAtripla在市场上的不断扩张,其中Truvada是由美国加州Gilead Sciences公司生产的一只药物,而Atripla是由Truvada和百时美施贵宝公司生产的复合药物。2009年,TruvadaGilead公司创造了25亿美元的销售额,而Atripla紧随其后,实现了24亿美元的销售额。在美国所有抗逆转录病毒药物的销售中,Truvada占据了32%的市场份额,Atripla的市场份额也高达28%

 

      由于核心HIV药物的销售情况超过了预期,前不久,Gilead和百时美施贵宝公司相继公布他们在2010年第三季度的利润增长不菲。Truvada的销售额增长了8%,达到6.687亿美元;而Atripla的销售额猛增20%以上,达到7.427亿美元。

 

      200911月,葛兰素史克和美国辉瑞公司携手合作,将各自的HIV业务归并到双方组建的一家合资企业ViiV Healthcare公司中,其中葛兰素史克占据85%的股份,辉瑞占据15%的股份。ViiV公司拥有10只可用药物的产品组合,它在全球HIV药物市场上占有19%的份额。虽然这家公司2010年全年的经营资料将于20112月公布,但葛兰素史克2009年度报告显示,当年其HIV药物销售总额达到了16亿英镑。

 

      在美国,百时美施贵宝公司2010年第三季度的业绩报告显示,Sustiva的销售额增长了9%。竞争对手默沙东的业绩资料也给人留下了深刻的印象,其主打HIV药物Isentress2010年第三季度实现全球销售额2.78亿美元,比上年同期增长了41%。  

 

未来增长可能减缓  

 

      Stephen Lewis是联合国非洲HIV/Aids计划的前特使,目前是国际宣传组织"无爱滋世界"AIDS Free World)的主任之一,他说,HIV药物生产商的实力表明,虽然面向低收入国家的药物价格已经下调,但是这些公司继续通过在富裕国家市场上以较高价格销售药物,来弥补它们在低收入国家遭遇的经济损失。

 

      此外,低收入国家的HIV药物价格下降,主要是因为印度等地仿制药生产商在迅速发展,并不是因为制药公司遭遇了突如其来的变故。

 

      Sanford C Bernstein公司分析师Geoff Porges更多地从慈善角度出发来评估HIV药物市场,他说,人类在对危及生命的一些疾病(比如HIV)的治疗上取得了很大进展,但是制药和生物科技行业对此所做的宣传工作极差。"我们已经将HIV/Aids从无法避免的、可怕的'死刑判决'转变成为一种慢性疾病,这种疾病可以在预期寿命相当接近于正常的情况下进行管理。"他说。

 

      Porges表示,这些进步得益于制药公司进行了一些高风险投资,而这些投资被证明"非常成功,非常有利可图,获得了丰厚的回报"。从中期来看,整个制药行业预计将会在HIV药物上取得进一步的发展。Datamonitor预计,在未来3年里(到2013年),七大市场的HIV药物销售将以复合年增长率5.7%的速度扩张。不过,随着重点产品的专利到期,这种盛况将会很快发生变化。比如,Sustiva将在2013年失去专利保护。

 

      如果再考虑到HIV药物的研发相对匮乏,那么从2013年起,这些压力的存在预计将会减缓抗逆转录病毒药物的销售增长。  

 

欧盟受指责  

 

      随着时间的推移,Datamonitor预测,抗逆转录病毒药物的销售将在2015年以后下降,2015~2019年,其复合年增长率将下降到-1.7%Porges表示,参与HIV药物市场竞争的制药公司也像制药行业在其它领域那样面临着同样的挑战。

 

      鉴于长期增长的可选择余地有限,一些活跃人士高度关注欧盟与印度正在进行的自由贸易谈判。印度是仿制药的主要生产国,在捐助人提供资金购买的所有艾滋病治疗药物中,有80%来自印度仿制药生产商。

 

      但是,欧盟被指控在推动采用"数据专用权"等措施,而这些措施有可能妨碍仿制药行业的发展。目前,仿制药生产商只需证明他们的仿制产品等同于原研药物。而药监部门则依赖于原研药生产厂家获得的安全数据进行评审。但是,"数据专用权"将使得原研药生产厂家可以阻止仿制药公司引用它的研究数据,时间可以长达10年。

 

      "无国界医生"组织表示,这一规定将导致产生新的专利性垄断,它对原研药生产厂家有利,但将阻碍低价药物的市场供应。

 原文:http://www.lourdes.org.tw/Page_Show.asp?Page_ID=2526

机构:台湾露德协会

 

组织:

Somen Debnath 索曼·德纳

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来自印度西孟加拉邦的索曼·德纳2004527开始他伟大的骑行计划:"Around the World Bicycle Tour for HIV/AIDS Awareness Programme & Presentations about Indian Culture"(自行车环游世界以提高艾滋认识和宣传印度文化)。索曼计划于2020年时完成自行车环游191个国家。目前,他共骑行了72400公里,穿越了35个国家。

 

策略:提高中学和大学学生对艾滋病的认识,并鼓励中小学和高校开展艾滋病教育课程;向毒品成瘾者推广洁净针头和注射器的使用;鼓励性工作者广泛使用避孕套;希望通过以上活动能够增进世界不同国家的年轻人对艾滋病的了解,以及唤起更多非政府组织(NGOS)的关注。

 

目标:在2010年骑车环游191个国家。在不同的国家通过授课的形式普及艾滋知识。主要针对贫困人口、山地少数民族、城市和农村对艾滋病缺乏了解的人群。

 

成绩:索曼从自己的家乡开始,环游了整个印度以及35个亚洲、欧洲的国家。在350NGOs3460所中学、3750所专科学院、68所大学、139个红灯区开展了他的艾滋教育项目。同时,他的勇气和精神受到了来自世界各国的9位总统、38位部长和地区行政长官的肯定和赞赏。


个人网站:http://www.somen2020world.com



地址:BASANTI,DISTRICT-24PGS(S)Pin No-743312WEST BENGALINDIA
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skype:somen2020
电话:+91 9836 48 7026/+91 9564 24 1775

 

Don't swallow this pill

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The Times of India

By Unni Karunakara


Are the European Union and its multinational pharmaceutical companies now pressuring the Indian prime minister's office? In recent months, as negotiators from India and Europe have been thrashing out the details of a free trade agreement to be signed within months, people living with HIV have been hitting the streets. From New Delhi to Nairobi and Brussels to Bangkok, they have been protesting against the very real threat posed to India's ability to supply life-saving generic medicines to people across the developing world.

Publicly, both sides have assured that the trade deal will not harm access to the affordable generic medicines, and have reiterated, as if by rote, the primacy of people's health over economic interests. But the Indian press now reports that the PMO, under pressure to conclude the deal, has asked the concerned government department to reconsider intellectual property (IP) provisions it had earlier rejected.


What is at stake? India became the 'pharmacy of the developing world' because its generic manufacturers are able to produce medicines that are patented elsewhere. This has made it a safe haven for affordable medicines. Medecins Sans Frontieres now purchases more than 80% of the medicines it uses to treat 1,60,000 people living with HIV/AIDS around the world from producers in India. But this safe haven has been under constant attack.

Six years ago, the first attack came when India was obliged under international trade rules to introduce patents on medicines. Already, patents have been granted on cancer, AIDS and hepatitis medicines. But crucially, India's parliamentarians sought to balance patents with public health, and designed a strict patent law that would stand up to trade rules and protect access to affordable generic medicines.

One core provision of the law stops pharmaceutical companies from abusing the patents system. Section 3d says no patent shall be granted for a minor change to an existing medicine, if it shows no significant therapeutic efficacy over one which already exists. This prevents "evergreening", when companies seek monopolies to block out generic competition for as long as possible, simply by making minor changes to a drug.

This has irked multinational pharmaceutical companies, which launched a second attack on the pharmacy of the developing world. As patent applications for several big-ticket drugs - oseltamivir for avian and swine flu, imatinib for leukaemia and, very recently, lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir for AIDS - failed to pass the patentability test in India, companies sought to overturn the law, or empty it of any substance. Novartis notoriously took the government of India to court in 2006, but lost. Other companies like Bayer have taken a stab, but have yet to succeed.

Enter the free trade agreement negotiations, as the European trade agenda becomes the latest mouthpiece for the multinational pharmaceutical companies. Until now, much of the debate on generic production in India has focussed on patents. Now, the EU has changed track and is pushing hard for India to sign up to another means of blocking off generic production: data exclusivity.

With data exclusivity, India would be agreeing to grant a period of exclusivity over the clinical trial data submitted by a pharmaceutical company. This in turn would prevent the Drugs Controller General of India - the body responsible for approving medicines for market - from registering a generic medicine until that time was over. The multinational pharmaceutical industry has asked for that time to be 10 years.

Data exclusivity is a backdoor to monopoly protection. It also sweeps away the attempts by India's parliamentarians to balance health and profits. It makes a mockery of India's patent offices' work to apply rigorous standards and ensure only innovative medicines are granted a monopoly. Now, a pharmaceutical company would merely have to submit clinical trial data to obtain several years of monopoly, whether the drug was patented or not, whether it was old or new, whether it showed inventive step or not, or gave added therapeutic benefits or not.

The effect on access to affordable medicines is clear. India can learn from the countries that have preceded it down this path. Jordan brought in data exclusivity as part of a trade deal with the US. A study by Oxfam found that of 103 medicines registered and launched since 2001 that had no patent protection in Jordan, at least 79% had no competition from a generic equivalent as a consequence of data exclusivity. The study also found that prices of these medicines under data exclusivity were up to 800% higher than in neighbouring Egypt.

India should not repeat others' mistakes, or the effect would be felt far beyond India's borders. The country is the source of the vast majority of drugs used to treat AIDS in developing countries. Affordable medicines produced in India have played a major part in reaching the more than five million people receiving HIV/AIDS treatment across the developing world today.

In 2000, treating one HIV positive person for a year cost more than Rs 4,00,000. Thanks to competition among generics from India, this same treatment today costs Rs 3,000. Any measure in the free trade agreement that would have the effect of blocking competition would effectively be turning the clock back on access to medicines. India needs to stand strong and resist European demands.


Weblink:http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-01-19/edit-page/28355488_1_patent-applications-medicines-section-3d

Organization: Oxfam


 

 


不要吞食这个苦果

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 The Times of India

 

欧盟及其跨国制药公司正在向印度总理内阁施加压力吗?近几个月来,当印度和欧洲就自由贸易协议的细节进行了谈判并即将在数月内签署协议之际,艾滋病患者们走上了街头进行抗议。从新德里到内罗毕,从布鲁塞尔到曼谷,各个地方的人们都在就印度向发展中国家的艾滋病患者提供挽救生命的非专利仿制药品的能力受到威胁一事进行抗议。

 

协议双方均在公开场合表示,贸易协定不会影响人们获得价格低廉的非专利仿制药品,并煞有其事地声称会将民众的利益优先于经济利益。

 

那么问题是什么呢?由于印度的非专利制造商能够生产在其它地方获得注册的专利药品从而使印度成为"发展中国家的药房"。这使得印度成为廉价药物的避风港。无国界医生组织目前从印度购买80%以上所需的药品,为全世界160,000艾滋病患者进行治疗。但是,这个避风港不断地受到来自各方的抨击。

 

第一次抨击六年前始于印度应当按照国际贸易规则引进药品专利。目前,癌症,艾滋病和肝炎的药品在印度已被授予专利权。但关键的是,印度的国会议员力求平衡公共健康与专利的关系,从而制定了与国际贸易规则相冲突的严苛的专利法,以确保病患能够获得价格低廉的非专利仿制药品。

 

一条重要的法律条款阻止了制药公司滥用专利制度。条款3D规定,如果一种现有的药物经过细微的改动且没有显著的疗效,这种现有的药物不能获得专利。这样就防止了制药企业企图以细微的变化保持其专利的垄断与"长效",从而阻止非专利仿制药品与其竞争。

 

这使跨国制药公司感到愤怒,因而向发展中国家的药房发动了第二轮抨击。鉴于一些著名的药物专利申请如治疗禽流感和猪流感的oseltamivir,治疗白血病的imatinib以及最近的lopinavir/ritonavir治疗艾滋病的atazanavir等都未能在印度通过专利鉴定,这些公司就试图推翻既定的法律或将其架空。2006年,诺华公司(Novartis引人瞩目地将印度政府告上法庭,但输了官司。其他如拜耳公司(Bayer)虽也进行了尝试,但尚未成功。

 

随着自由贸易协定谈判的进行,欧洲的贸易议程成为跨国制药公司的最新话题。自始至终,关于印度非专利仿制药品的争论主要集中于在生产专利。现在欧盟改变了策略,正在致力于就另一种排除非专利仿制药品生产的做法与印度达成协议:数据资料专有权。

 

所谓数据资料专有权就是印度须同意给予跨国制药公司提供的临床试验数据资料一段专有期。这样做的结果使得负责批准药品销售的印度药物监管局专有权有效期间无法批准非专利仿制药品的注册。跨国制药行业要求的专有期为10年。

 

资料专有权是为保护垄断开后门,也让印度的国会议员们平衡健康和利益的努力付之东流。这也让印度专利局实行的严格标准以及确保只有创新药物被授予专利的做法成为笑柄。现在一家跨国制药公司,无论其药品有专利与否,是新或旧,是否显示创造性步骤,或是否提高了治疗效果,只要提交临床试验资料就可以获得多年的垄断。

 

能够获得廉价药物的结果是显而易见的。印度可以从那些已经实践过的国家那里得到借鉴。作为与美国的贸易协议的一部分,约旦即引进了资料专有权。乐施会(Oxfam)的研究发现,尽管2001年以来生产和销售的103种药品的专利在约旦没有受到保护,但由于资料专有权的原因,其中79%以上的药品没有遇到非专利仿制药品的竞争。该研究还发现,在邻近国家埃及,这些资料专有权下的药品价格高达800%。

 

印度不应重蹈别人的覆辙,否则其结果和影响将会远远超越印度的国界。发展中国家用于治疗艾滋病的绝大多数药品来自该国。目前,在印度生产的廉价药品在发展中国家500多万艾滋病患者的治疗中发挥着重要作用。

 

2000年,治疗一名艾滋病患者一年的费用是400,000卢比以上。但是在印度生产的非专利仿制药品的竞争之下,今天同样的治疗费用只需3,000卢比。任何自由贸易协定的措施都将有碍竞争,而其结果势必让获得廉价药品的时光倒流。印度应当坚决地抵制欧洲的要求。


Asia Report翻译

原文链接:http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-01-19/edit-page/28355488_1_patent-applications-medicines-section-3d


机构:OXFAM 乐施会



CARAM Asia


Foreward

  The unprecedented economic growth and social and economic inequalities that Asia is experiencing combine to create complex  push and pull factors that have led to large movements of people in the region.  At any given point in time, there are an estimated 54 million people on the move outside of their home countries within Asia and beyond, and almost half that number, are estimated to be women. Asia is one of the largest suppliers of international migrant women who serve as domestic workers.

Outside Asia, the countries of the Arab States region are the primary destination for a majority of migrant workers from the Philippines, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The economic gains generated by migrant workers to both countries of origin and host countries are considerable reaching almost 8% of GDP in Sri Lanka and as high as 17% of the national GDP in the Philippines.  Yet, there is a major disconnect between the economic contribution of migrant workers and the poor conditions and meager support many receive throughout their migration journey.

A key issue of concern with cross border and overseas migration is HIV and AIDS. In recent years, an increasing number of migrant workers from Asia have been diagnosed with HIV in various countries in the Arab States. Deportations due to HIV status have resulted in severe economic loss for migrant workers and their families, who have been declared by local authorities as "unfit" to work abroad.

Governments from Asian countries have also been concerned about this issue. The Ministers of Health from the Governments of Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India, the Philippines and Bangladesh called for a meeting on the issue at the time of the World Health Assembly of 2007 highlighting the need to engage in inter regional dialogue with countries from the Arab States region to find ways to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities to HIV that migrant workers face..

 

  The purpose of this study was commissioned to shed light on the complex relationship between migration and HIV vulnerability, with a special focus on the vulnerabilities faced by Asian migrant women.

Through in-depth and focus group discussions, the study discloses the vulnerabilities that Asian migrant women encounter throughout the migration cycle. They often leave for overseas work under unsafe conditions, live in very difficult circumstances, and are often targets of sexual exploitation and violence before they depart, during their transit and stay in host countries and on return to their countries of origin. With little or no access to health services and social protection, these factors combine to make Asian women migrants highly vulnerable to HIV.

Confronted with inadequate policies and legislation that are not enforceable in host countries, migrant women often have limited or no access to justice and redress mechanisms, especially in Gulf countries. If they are found HIV positive, they face deportation and back in their countries of origin they experience discrimination and social isolation in addition to the difficulty of finding alternative livelihoods.

  As the research shows, there are several good practices from both countries of origin  and host countries that are making a difference to migrant's lives, from the bilateral agreements negotiated between the Philippines and host countries, to social protection afforded to migrants in Lebanon. It is the intention of this study to highlight emerging good practice, deepen our understanding of the linkages between HIV and migration to inform and shape more effective policy and programme responses for Asian migrant women that will ensure safe mobility with dignity, equity and justice.


Read more>>


Organization: CARAM ASIA

CARAM Asia 报告



移民妇女面对对艾滋病病毒的脆弱性:从亚洲到阿拉伯地区

--从静默、引以为耻、羞愧到有尊严、公平和公正地安全迁移的转变

 

前言

亚洲地区空前的经济增长带来了巨大的社会和经济不平等,这直接成为该地区大量人口流动的动因。据估计,目前亚洲流动人口人数达到五千四百万,其中将近一半是妇女。亚洲已成为国际家庭保姆的主要来源地。亚洲以外的其它地区,例如阿拉伯国家,是来自菲律宾、孟加拉、斯里兰卡、巴基斯坦的移民妇女工人的首选目的地。

目前对跨境和海外移民主要关注的一个问题是艾滋病病毒和艾滋病的传染。近几年,在很多阿拉伯国家,越来越多的亚洲移民工人被诊断出感染了艾滋病毒。因感染艾滋病毒而被遣返回国的工人失去经济来源,对其家庭造成巨大影响。

亚洲国家政府也高度重视这个问题。2007年巴基斯坦、斯里兰卡、印尼、印度、菲律宾、孟加拉国政府在世界卫生大会上与阿拉伯地区的国家积极展开地区间对话,以降低移民工所面对的艾滋病感染风险和脆弱性。

这个研究的主要关注移民以及其在面对病毒时的脆弱性之间复杂的关系,特别强调亚洲女性移民工所面临的风险。

通过深度访谈和小组讨论,本研究揭示了亚洲女性移民在迁移过程中所遭遇的脆弱性。她们常常在不安全的条件下工作,居住在糟糕的环境里,并经常遭受暴力,成为性奴役的目标、她们缺乏卫生服务和社会保障,这些因素造成了亚洲女性移民面临艾滋病毒时高度的脆弱性。

这个研究也展示了东道国和移民来源国为改善移民状况所实施的优秀的案例,例如菲律宾和东道国签订的双边协议,黎巴嫩为移民工人提供社会保障。本研究意在突显不断出现的良好实践,加深我们对艾滋病毒与移民工人之间的关系的认识,促进相关政策和项目的事实,最终保证亚洲女性移民获得尊严、公平和公正。


Asia Report 编译


PDF下载>>


机构:CARAM Asia


"Sex workers Meet Law Makers"

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1st March 2011, Constitution Club, New Delhi


Background

India is home to an estimated 12.63 lakh female sex workers. In addition, there are considerable numbers of transgender and male persons engaging in sex work. The last two decades has seen the emergence of sex workers' collectives, mobilizing around health, education, livelihood and social security, and protection from violence.

 

To illustrate, sex workers' in Kolkata have developed the renowned peer education model of prevention of HIV, built schools for their children's education and opened  banks and credit facilities to reduce indebtedness. In Mysore, sex workers run a popular restaurant, dispelling the social stigma attached to sex work. In Bengaluru, sex workers have formed a trade union and are demanding labour standards. Sex workers in Sangli use film and theatre medium of 'Sangli Talkies' to articulate their experiences to the world at large.  Across the country, sex workers' are asserting themselves in public spaces and claiming equal opportunity before law.  

While the above examples mark a welcome break from disempowerment, sex workers' efforts to improve their lives is obscured by criminalization. Prostitution per se is not illegal but sex workers' are restrained under the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA) with dangerous consequences, especially for the control of sexually transmitted infections and HIV (see below).


The Immoral Traffic Prevention Act (ITPA), 1956was enacted to inhibit organized prostitution and trafficking, especially in women and children. The Act does not proscribe sex work per se but penalises specific activities related to commercial sex such as brothel keeping, living off earnings of sex work, procuring, inducing or detaining for prostitution. Sex workers and clients are punishable for prostitution in public places and for soliciting. All offences are cognizable i.e., the police do not require a warrant to conduct search or make arrests. Police personnel entrusted with the implementation of the Act are accorded extraordinary powers to investigate. Magistrates are authorized to order closure of brothels and evict sex workers. Rehabilitation is synonymous with detention for indeterminate periods. 

 

The ITPA has failed to prevent forcible entry of young persons into sex work. Instead, the maximum arrests and convictions are against sex workers, for holding themselves out as such. Sex workers are unable to support their family/dependents as earnings from prostitution are penalized. Fear of arrest by the police makes it difficult for sex workers to negotiate safer sex. Peer educators carrying condoms are harassed and accused of promoting prostitution. Places where the ITPA is invoked to close down brothels witnessed disruption in delivery of health and HIV services. Under the pretext of medical examination, sex workers are compelled to undergo mandatory HIV testing without counseling, consent and protection of confidentiality. Forcible raids and rescue are accompanied by violence and rights abuses. Overall, the ITPA disempowers sex workers; robbing them of health, safety and protection from HIV.

 

Between 2005-2009, sex workers engaged with Members of Parliament (MPs), including the then Minister of Women and Child Development, senior officials from the National AIDS Control Organisation and the Ministry of Health, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Women and Child Development and the Parliamentary Forum on HIV and AIDS to share their concerns on the proposed amendments to ITPA. As a result, the Amendment bill was rolled back. During these interactions, the need for greater interface between sex workers and law makers was felt. This was reconfirmed by the Chairperson of the Lok Sabha Committee on Women's Empowerment, who, at a recent meeting with sex worker representatives, expressed the need for dialogue with legislators.   


About the Meeting

Pursuant to this suggestion, the National Network of Sex Workers (NNSW) and the Lawyers Collective are hosting a Meeting on 1st March 2011 at the Constitution Club, New Delhi. Through this interface, sex workers will apprise MPs of the problems associated with criminalization of sex work. Parliamentarians will respond with further questions or solutions, applicable locally or nationally. The interaction will also enable sex workers' to understand parliamentary processes including opportunities for raising debate on policies that affect them. Policy makers will discuss their Ministry/Departments' programmes for sex workers, as will representatives from UN agencies. Speakers include Oscar Fernandes, Member of Parliament and President, Forum of Parliamentarians on HIV and AIDS, Honb'le Mr. Justice A.P Shah, Priya Dutt, Member of Parliament, Caitlin Wiesen, Country Director, United Nations Development Programme, Sapna Gayen, Durbar Mahila Samanvay Samiti and Veena, Karnataka Sex Workers' Union. Honb'le Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare, Dinesh Trivedi, is also expected to deliver a Special Address.   


Weblink:http://www.lawyerscollective.org/news/94-qsex-workers-meet-law-makersq-on-1st-march-2011.html

Organization: Lawyers Collective


新德里
2011年3月1日

背景

     据估计,印度女性性工作者超过12万人。另外,还有相当一部分跨性别和男性工作者。在过去二十年中,性工作者逐渐聚集在一起,为争取健康、教育、生计、社会保障以及自我保护等方面的权利而积极努力着。

    举例而言,加尔各答的性工作者开发了著名的朋辈教育模式以预防爱滋病,为子女建立学校,开设银行和信贷措施以减少债务。纵观印度全国,性工作者的身影已经积极地活跃于公共领域,争取法律面前的平等机会。

    虽然以上的案例标志着性工作者赋权的开端,但是她们试图改善自己生活的努力还是因刑事定罪而受阻。色情行业本身并不违法,但是性工作者受《1956不道德交易防治法案》(the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act)(简称"法案")的约束,这一法案带来的后果非常危险,特别是对于性病和艾滋病控制。

    20052009年间,性工作者多次与国会议员交涉,表达她们提议修正法案的一些想法。结果,修正案的提议并未得到通过。在这个过程中,我们发现性工作者和议员之间需要一个更大的交流平台。


关于本次会议

     出于对这种需要的考虑,全国性工作者网络(NNSW)和律师联盟(Lawyers Collective)201131在新德里共同举行会议。通过这个平台,性工作者将有机会对议员讲述对性工作的刑事定罪所带来的问题。国会将针对这些问题予以回应,或给出在特定地区以及全国都适用的解决方案。同时,性工作者也能了解到议会制定相关政策的过程。



Asia Report 编译


原文链接:http://www.lawyerscollective.org/news/94-qsex-workers-meet-law-makersq-on-1st-march-2011.html


机构:律师联盟(Lawyers Collective)




Radio Netherlands Worldwide



He's been taken hostage by Taliban and mugged in Bulgaria, but that hasn't stopped Somen Debnath from fulfilling his mission: to raise HIV awareness by biking - alone - through 191 countries over the course of 16 years. Mr Debnath recently arrived in the Netherlands after a journey of 81,900 kilometres.

As a small boy growing up in India, Somen Debnath saw that people with AIDS were treated like lepers. It made such an impression that he decided he had to do something about it. Now that he is an adult he is travelling the world to raise awareness about HIV and AIDS.

In the meantime, he has crossed 57 countries. This week, he was in the Netherlands. He plans to continue through Europe before heading to Africa.


Watch the interview here>>



Weblink:http://www.rnw.nl/english/video/cycling-around-world-against-aids


To know more about Somen Debnath>>


 

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