印度

Times of India

  KOLKATTA: Seema Folka is excited, nervous and proud that she will be rubbing shoulders with the state's who's who on Friday. The 43-year-old will be attending Trinamool Congress leader Mamata Banerjee's swearing-in ceremony.

  Folka is a sex worker who will be in the invitee's gallery when Banerjee and her ministers take the oath.

  "We are thankful to Didi for showing a humane gesture by including sex workers in her invitee list. This quality in her will keep her connected with people from every section of the society," said Folka.

  Driven to the profession by abject poverty, Folka entered the professiion at a young age. Her father used to work as a daily wage earner to feed five mouths till he became bed ridden due to gastric ulcer. Her mother's meager income as domestic help was too insufficient for the family. Most of the time Seema and his two siblings would go without food for days. And when Seema's marriage was arranged, the groom's family broke the engagement as Seema's father could not meet the dowry demand. That was when Seema left her Murshidabad dwelling for Sonagachi, the biggest red light area in Kolkata to salvage the family out of poverty.

  "I will be wearing a green colour tant saree for the ceremony. I am a little nervous because I have never been a part of such a formal function. But I am sure I will remain composed and witness the historic event like any of those in the guest gallery," said Folka.
Durbar Mahila Samawaya Committee (DMSC), an advocacy organisation of the sex workers is elated about the prospect of their representative being present at such an important event.

  "It is great on part of Mamata Banerjee to have remembered us on such an important day. This infact is the first time a sex worker has been invited to be a part of an event like this.

  We hope her government will continue to support our cause in future," said DMSC secretary Bharati Dey.

OrganizationDurbar Mahila Samawaya CommitteeDMSC


Weblink: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-05-19/india/29559770_1_swearing-in-ceremony-mamata-banerjee-dmsc




    Durbar Mahila Samawaya委员会(DMSC)是亚洲第一个性工作者工会,成立于1997年,该联盟立刻接管了当地政府的艾滋项目。DMSC在西孟加拉地区拥有6万 名男、女性会员。委员会主要致力于倡导性工作合法化、平等工人权利,以及促进与改善工作环境与工资。

Times of India

印度
加尔哥达

 
    Seema Folka兴奋、紧张并非常骄傲,因为星期五她将有机会与国家重要领导人肩并肩站在一起。这位43岁的性工作者将参加催那木国会(Trinamool Congress)领导人Seema Folka的就职仪式。

    作为一名性工作者,Folka将出现在被邀请人列席中共同观看Banerjee和其他部长宣誓。Folka表示:"我们很感激Didi在邀请人名单中加入了性工作者,她所表现出的人道主义的姿态令人敬佩,这也使她与全国各个领域的人联系在一起。"

    由于家庭贫困,Folka在年纪很小的时候就被迫进入性服务行业。她的父亲靠每日打零工来养活家里的五口人,最终却因胃溃疡瘫倒家中,无法继续工作。她的母亲靠家务活所得更是微不足道,无法支付日常生活。Folka和她的姐妹们常常几天没有一点儿食物。家里人为Folka说了一门亲事,但由于无法凑足嫁妆,对方解除了婚约。因此Folka离开家来到加尔各答最大的红灯区Sonagachi,希望把家人从水生火热中拯救出来。

    "在典礼那天我将身着绿色的纱丽服。我有点儿紧张,因为我从来没有出席过这么正规的场合。但我确定我将保持镇定,并和其他人一起见证这个历史性的时刻。" Folka表示。
对于其成员出席如此重要的活动,性工作者倡导组织Durbar Mahila Samawaya委员会(DMSC)感到非常骄傲。DMSC秘书长Bharati Dey 说:"Mamata Banerjee能在这么重要的日子仍记得我们,让我们感到很欣慰。事实上这是性工作者第一次受邀参加这一类的活动。我们希望政府今后能够继续支持我们的工作。"


Asia Report 翻译

组织:Durbar Mahila Samawaya委员会(DMSC)


原文链接:http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-05-19/india/29559770_1_swearing-in-ceremony-mamata-banerjee-dmsc

为期两天的全国男男性行为者(MSM)大会于星期三(2011420)在印度城市Panhala结束。所有参会者一致声明污名化、歧视与罪行化是阻碍社区获得全面艾滋预防、治疗和关爱服务的根本原因。

 

国际开拓者协会Pathfinder International项目主管Darshana Vyas表示"Panhala格尔哈布尔地区召开的大会意在为MSM社区重新注入活力增强社区归属感提高对项目管理和实施的领导力以及参与度。

 

她进一步表示必须逐渐把目前已建立的社区组织(CBOs)纳入到国家联盟中,以便为社区提供持续稳定的支持,帮助社区发出自己的声音。

此次会议由国际开拓者协会承办,该机构的Mukta项目为包括女性性工作者(FSW)、男男性行为者(MSM)和其伴侣在内的高危感染人群提供服务,意在降低性传染疾病(STIs)和艾滋病在该群体的传染率。该项目已经在马哈拉施特拉邦的五个地区开展,目前正准备把艾滋子项目交付给社区组织进行管理和实施。

 

来自马哈拉施特拉邦6CBO主要聚集的地区Kolhapur, Latur, Nasik, Beed, Pune, Yavatmal的大约300名社区成员参加了本次会议。致力于MSM社区的多个组织和机构也参加了本次会议,例如Samabhavana Society, Samapathik Udaan。大会主要活动包括通过加强交流促进行为改变、提高对人权和权力的认识,增强规划、领导力和团队建设能力。

 

来自the Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationSameer Kumta主要负责几个地区的艾滋预防项目他在本次会议中强调了增强社区领导力的需要并号召社区成员全心投入工作并且相互分担责任。"我们只有通过共同的努力才能解决新的挑战,对降低艾滋传染率做出有效地投入" 他补充道本次会议为社区如何通过加强交流、领导力和管理来回应艾滋病毒对社区所带来的打击提供了重新思考的平台。

 

来自格尔哈布尔地区的朋辈教育培训者Kumar表示:"这一次相聚对我们的交流非常有帮助,我们因此可以相互理解并解决我们共同关心的问题,例如对抗逆转录病毒治疗的坚持度、安全套的持续使用、性传播疾病的诊断与治疗、艾滋病感染自愿检测,等等。 我们希望通过这次会议能够把相关的知识介绍到社区去。"

 

在法律知识普及环节,来自Latur MSM社区的Raju表示很多法律对同性性行为进行制裁。他说:"我们必须共同向那些侵犯人权和限制根本自由的法律和政策发出挑战。"

 

国际开拓者协会在其第三阶段的国家艾滋控制项目(NACP III)中已成功将六个地区(Kolhapur, Latur, Nashik, Beed, Pune, Yavatmal)的女性性工作者和男男性行为社区组织引入马哈拉施特拉邦艾滋控制协会。该项目在过去五年中成功使女性性工作者和男男性行为者的性疾病感染率降低30%


本次会议在panhala地区举行来自Kolhapur, Latur, Nashik, Beed, Pun300名社区成员参加了会议。



原文链接 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-04-21/pune/29458584_1_hiv-prevention-msm-community/2



Asia Report翻译



机构:Pathfinder International

"It was funny and a little bit uncomfortable, but it broke the ice for discussion." Grace (19) recalls how her teacher at a small private school taught her class how to use a condom.

"No one dared to admit whether they had sexual experience or not. But we had some general discussion about condoms, sex and relationships. Our teacher showed us you can be comfortable with the topic."

Grace's experience with sexual health education is an exception in India, as she found out after moving to Mumbai for college. Coming from a small city in the south of the country, she expected her college mates in the centre of Bollywood to be far more at ease with the topic of sexuality.

Porn
The opposite was true: most youngsters had learned about reproduction and HIV in school, but discussion about sexual acts or feelings was never encouraged.

"I didn't know anything in school," says Rishi (20). "I got a girlfriend at 16, but I didn't even know where the female body part is exactly, and how it works. Whatever I learnt later came, to be honest, from porn," he says shyly. "I went to a boy's school," he adds by way of explanation.

Responsible
"The state of sex education in India has much improved in the past five to ten years," says child psychologist Shakhar Seshadri, who has been advocating a more 'rights-based' approach to it. "The Dutch example is rights based," he explains.

"Contrary to popular arguments, there is international evidence that this approach actually postpones the age of first sexual activity by two years. We do not encourage children to experiment with sex. We just promote a happy, healthy and responsible attitude towards it."

Banned
Four years ago, a new sexual health education programme promoted by the Indian government for use in government schools, which was developed by UNICEF, was banned by six states.

Opponents said the content was too explicit and no teacher would be willing to use it. Some also said it wasn't suited to Indian culture. Children should merely be taught to abstain from sex before marriage and be faithful to their spouses after marriage, they argued.

The Central Board of Secondary Education, which recommends the programme, took out words like arousal, masturbation, ejaculation and intercourse, and diagrams and posters showing the change from puberty to adulthood.

Dutch
The arguments goes on, but the opposition has become smaller and smaller, says Dr Seshadri. "Parents are more and more informed. The average middle class family has a TV, and the wish for children to process the information and images from television in a healthy way makes the rights-based approach more acceptable to parents."

Dr Seshadri has developed a series of workbooks for school children between the age of 8 and 14, which is being used by several private schools across the country.

He is talking about including children between 4 and 6 years old as well - just like in the Dutch 'Spring Butterflies' programme. "For them it would be about communication, naming different body parts, and talking about good and bad experiences."

Experiment
Also teachers and parents will need to learn how to communicate, he says. "The resistance to the government programme mainly came from the great discomfort amongst teachers, also in terms of language. They are not used to talking about these things."

He doesn't agree with the argument that sex education is fit for the west, but doesn't belong in Indian culture. "The only issue in India is the naive believe that children are asexual beings. And the denial that young people do experiment with sex outside an institution such as marriage. Which they do."


    "这有一点儿滑稽和不舒服,但是的确让讨论热络了起来。"19岁的格蕾丝回忆起她所就读的私立学校中老师在课堂上教学生如何使用避孕套。"谁都不敢承认自己是否已有过性经历。但是我们泛泛地讨论了避孕套、性和恋爱关系。老师告诉我们不必因这些话题而感到不舒服。"

    在格蕾丝到孟买的大学就读时,她对性教育的经验在印度社会来说是一个例外。格蕾丝来自于印度南部一个小城市,她原以为这些生活在在宝莱坞中心的同学们应该不会对讨论这些话题而感到不自在。

色情电影
    事实却恰恰相反:这些年轻人大部分在学校学习了生殖和艾滋病毒的相关知识,但对于性行为的讨论却少之又少。20岁的Rishi表示"我在学校完全没接触过这些东西,我16岁的时候交了一个女朋友,但是我对女性的身体构造完全没有概念,我不知道她们的身体部位以及这些部位如何运转。坦白的说,后来我从色情电影中逐渐了解到这些知识。"他害羞地说:"我就读的地方是男校"

责任
    儿童心理学家Shakhar Seshadri 表示:"在过去5-10年中,印度的性教育有了很大的进步。"Shakhar一直致力于'权利为基础'的方法。"荷兰的例子就是以权利为基础。"他解释道。

禁令
    四年前,联合国儿童基金会(UNICEF)和印度政府共同设计了一个在公立学校进行性教育的项目,却遭到印度6个州的共同抵制。反对者表示课程内容过于直白和详细,没有老师愿意教。也有人表示这不适合印度文化。反对者称儿童应该接受婚前无性行为的教育,结婚后应忠于他/她们的另一半。该项目的引进机构--中等教育中心委员会把性觉醒、手淫、射精、性交这些单词从教程中删除,并把介绍青春期向成人转变过程的图片和图表都去掉。

荷兰
    Seshadri博士表示争论还在继续,但是反对派的声音越来越弱了。"现在学生家长们越来越意识到这个问题。一般的中产阶级家庭都有电视机,他们希望孩子能够通过电视获得健康游泳的信息和图像,这使得全力为基础的方法更容易被家长接受。" Seshadri已针对8-14岁儿童制作了一系列学习手册,并已成功地向全国数个私立学校推广。

实验
    同时他也表示"老师和家长也需要学习如何交流。对政府项目强大的阻力多来自于教师的抵触情绪,他们不太习惯教授这些知识。"他并不同意性教育只适用于西方而非印度这种说法。"印度文化中认为儿童都是无性生物,这种观念过于幼稚。而且,对年轻人婚前性行为的否认也过于天真。"


机构:联合国儿童基金会(UNICEF)

Asia Report 翻译


原文链接: http://www.rnw.nl/english/article/indian-teachers-get-used-talking-about-sex



APN+

ND protest 4.jpg

  Source: APN+

New Delhi, 2 March 2011- More than three thousand people living with HIV from across India and Asia marched to Parliament Street in New Delhi today alongside the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health. They urged the Indian government to stand strong amid pressure from the European Union (EU) to accept provisions in a free trade agreement (FTA) that would restrict access to affordable medicines. The sensitive negotiations are taking place in Brussels today.

 

"We all rely on affordable medicines made here in India to stay alive,"said Nepal-based Rajiv Kafle of the Asia Pacific Network of Positive People (APN+).  "We don't want to go back in time, to when our friends and loved ones just died because they couldn't afford the medicines they needed.  We're taking to the streets today, and many of us have come to Delhi to send a very simple message to the Indian government: Don't trade away our lives in the EU-India FTA."

 

 

The EU is pushing for intellectual property (IP) provisions in the FTA that exceed what international trade rules require.  The most damaging measure to access to affordable medicines is so-called 'data exclusivity,' which would act like a patent and block generic versions from the market, even for drugs that are already off patent, or do not merit a patent to begin with under India's strict patent law.  The EU continues to claim - falsely - that these provisions will not harm access to medicines.

 

"Data exclusivity has proven to be damaging to public health in free trade agreements in other countries," said Anand Grover, the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health.  "It would be a colossal mistake to introduce data exclusivity in India, when millions of people across the globe depend on the country as the 'pharmacy of the developing world."

 

Affordable medicines produced in India have played a major role, for example, in scaling up HIV/AIDS treatment to more than five million people in developing countries.  India was able to produce more affordable versions of medicines patented elsewhere because it did not grant patents on medicines until 2005, when World Trade Organization rules required it to do so.  But when India designed its 2005 patent law, it prioritized public health over company profits, limiting patents to drugs that are new, and not just improvements of older medicines.

 

"India's patent law has long annoyed multinational pharmaceutical companies, and Novartis and Bayer have even tried to overturn the law in the courts,"said Loon Gangte, of the Delhi Network of Positive People.  "Having failed so far, companies have now lobbied European governments to take up their fight for pharmaceutical profits."

 

The fact that India does now grant patents on medicines is already having a chilling effect on generic production.  Several newer medicines to treat HIV, hepatitis-C and cancer have already been patented in India and their more affordable generic versions cannot be produced for several years to come. 

 

"We have not been able to get generic versions of treatment for hepatitis-C that affects current and former injectingdrug users and many people living with HIV because the medicine is patented in India," said Abou Mere of the Indian Drug User's Forum (IDUF). "And I don't know any one of us who can afford the Rs. 7 lakhs (over US$15,000) it costs in India for the full treatment."

 

The IP provisions the EU is pushing would make this difficult situation significantly worse, by imposing even more restrictions on the production of affordable generic medicines in the future.

 

Intellectual property in FTAs can undermine the right to health in many ways.  For example, tobacco companies are using FTAs with intellectual property in investment chapters to sue governments directly for their efforts to bring in measures to protect public health.  

 

"As we speak, Philip Morris is using the Switzerland-Uruguay trade agreement to sue Uruguay for its decision to introduce larger and more graphic health warnings on cigarette packs,"said Y.K. Sapru, of the Cancer Patients Aid Association, which has long advocated for tobacco control measures in India.  "The Indian government and the World Health Organization should wake up to the fact that the Convention on Tobacco Control is also under attack in these FTAs."

 

"What the EU wants with this FTA places trade interests over human rights and, in effect, may not be compliant with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and other international instruments concerning the right to health,"added the Special Rapporteur.  "Provisions pertaining to intellectual property in the draft FTA should be urgently reconsidered."

 

 

Contact:  

Sheila Shettle: +91.98.7180.0723Shailly Gupta: +91.98.9997.6108


Weblink: http://www.apnplus.org/main/Index.php?module=news&news=61


Organization:

Asia Pacific Network of Positive People (APN+)

Delhi Network of Positive People (DNP)

the Cancer Patients Aid Association (CPAA)

ND protest 4.jpg

Source: APN+

 印度新德里


来自亚洲地区和印度全国的超过3000名艾滋病毒携带者与联合国健康与权力问题特别报告员在新德里国会大街一同举行抗议游行。他们要求印度政府坚决抵制欧盟自由贸易协定条款所带来的巨大压力,该条款将严格限制廉价药物,对患者获得廉价药物造成阻碍。以下是示威者的声明。

201132

位于尼泊尔的 亚太艾滋病感染者网络(APN+)代表Rajiv Kafle表示:"我们的生命依赖着印度生产的廉价药物。我们不想回到从前,那时候我们的朋友和爱人因无力购买所需的药物而死去。我们今天来到新德里,走上街头,仅仅对印度政府提出一个简单的要求:不要拿我们的生命换取欧盟-印度自由贸易协定"

 联合国健康与权力问题特别报告员Anand Grover也作出表率:"经证明自由贸易协定所规定的数据独占权对别国公共健康带来严重损害。在印度实施数据独占这一法令更是一个巨大的错误。因为世界各地的患者都依赖着作为'发展中国家的药房'的印度。"

 德里艾滋患者网络代表Loon Gangte也表示:"印度的专利权早就惹恼了众多国际制药公司,诺华(Novartis)和拜尔(Bayer)两公司甚至在法庭上试图推翻该法案。虽然未获得成功,但这两家公司现正游说欧盟政府维护制药利润。"

 印度成瘾者论坛代表Abou Mere表示:"由于在印度药物受专利权保护,我们目前还是无法得到治疗丙型肝炎的非专利治疗方案,而丙型肝炎是毒品成瘾者和艾滋病毒携带者的主要病症。我想在印度没有人能够承受70万卢比(超过1.5万美元)的治疗。"

 癌症病人援助联盟一直提倡在印度实施香烟控制措施,此次也加入到抗议队伍当中。联盟负责人Y.K. Sapru表示:"菲利普莫里斯公司正在用瑞士-乌拉圭自由贸易协定起诉乌拉圭在香烟包装上放置更大更形象的'吸烟有害健康'的警示。印度政府和世界卫生组织应该从这个事件上觉醒过来,香烟管理条例也受到自由贸易协定的打击。"

  联合国健康与权力问题特别报告员再次补充道:"欧盟把自贸协定所能带来的利益至于人权至上,违背了《经济、社会和文化权利国际公约》(ICESCR)以及其它国际相关健康权利公约的精神和要求。应立即重新考虑自贸协定中有关知识产权的条例。"

联系人:

Sheila Shettle: +91.98.7180.0723

Shailly Gupta: +91.98.9997.6108


Asia Report 翻译


原文链接:http://www.apnplus.org/main/Index.php?module=news&news=61


机构:

亚太艾滋病感染者网络 (APN+)

德里艾滋患者网络(DNP+)

癌症病人援助联盟 (CPAA)



 德里艾滋患者网络(DNP+)成立于1999年,是一个已注册的艾滋病人互助小组。DNP+目前正积极游说当局为艾滋病携带者提供治疗,机构同时也为病患提供咨询服务和社区支持服务。


联络方式:

地址:  House No - 64, Gali No - 3, Neb Sarai, Near IGNOU, New Delhi - 110 068
电话: 011 -2953 5239
传真: 011-2953 4170
E-mail: dnpplus@yahoo.co.in

联络人t: Loon Gangte - 09871 029514

      癌症病人援助联盟是一家已注册的慈善NGO,成立于1969年,CPAA为印度全国,甚至孟加拉国、不丹、尼泊尔和巴基斯坦超过4万名癌症病患提供服务和协助。

      CPAA相信每个癌症病人都有权享有全面的质量服务,机构60名员工和60名医生每天竭尽全力为患者提供所需治疗和帮助。

 

机构致力于对癌症疾病的全面管理,主要包括:

1.      宣传癌症主要致病原因,例如吸烟、早孕、多胎妊娠等行为的危害。印度高达70%的癌症都由以上行为导致。

2.      发起癌症早起检测活动,因为大部分治愈的可能性都处于该阶段。

3.      为癌症病人提供医疗意外的全面协助。

 

网址:http://www.cpaaindia.org/index.htm

联系方式:http://www.cpaaindia.org/contactus/index.htm



 

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