柬埔寨

作者:Siena Anstis


    
第三届男、女同性恋、双性恋与变性者(LGBT)骄傲周庆祝活动在柬埔寨落幕。柬埔寨彩虹社团(RoCK)作为组织方开展了为期一周的电影放映、讨论会和一系列其它活动。


    
在柬埔寨开展LGBT权利的倡导活动经历了一个漫长的过程。在2003年至2009年第一届LGBT骄傲周的六年时间里,每年庆祝活动只能开展一个晚上。


    
组织委员会成员Collette O'Regan表示,组织2011年骄傲周这样密集的一周活动打开了柬埔寨LGBT权利的新篇章。从前,大部分的倡导活动都以男男性行为者(MSM)为目 标群体。妇女被排除在外,变性者和性取向问题都与艾滋问题联系在一起,收到不应有的污蔑。她说:"你能想象这样做的后果,可怕的歧视、暴力、自我伤害和自 杀现象频发。"


    
柬埔寨社会对待LGBT群体并没有达到某些国家对LGBT群体的公众歧视和暴力的程度(虽然最近LGBT就报老板Kye Poirrie遭殴打的案例引起人们的担忧)。O'Regan认为柬埔寨社会并为对LGBT产生仇视与暴力的原因跟柬埔寨的官方宗教--佛教密不可分,佛教 对于同性恋持一个更为容忍的态度。柬埔寨LGBT维权倡导者Pisey Ly也表示,除了柬埔寨家庭法(family law)规定只允许异性伴侣结婚以外,其它法律并没有以性取向为基础的歧视(在乌干达,同性恋是非法的。)。她说:"我国的宪法保证所有公民的权利,无论 /她们持有何种性向,都能够充分享受这些权利。"Pisey Ly也并未要求特殊的对外,她表示:"虽然没有为LGBT权利而特别设立的法律,但LGBT团体也并为觉得需要针对自身的特别的法律,因为我们希望被看做 和别人一样的公民。"


    
然而,要让每一个LGBT个体确确实实获得这些基本的权利,还需经历一个奋斗的过程。她讲述了一下几个案例:一个同性恋女孩遭到家人威胁表示要找人强奸她 的同性爱人;另一个家庭向警察行贿,让他恐吓女儿的同性恋伴侣。一个同性恋女孩告诉Ly,她的家人威胁说要杀死她。Ly怀疑如果这件事情真的发生了,可能 警察也不会出面干涉。 Ly认为对于法律在基层的实施问题,政府部门很难获得相关信息。"他们不理解性取向是什么,并认为同性恋是不正常的。"


    
虽然一般来说政界人物对于同性恋的容忍度较大,但也有例外。例如柬埔寨总理Hun Sen公开与其同性恋女儿断绝关系。这也使得社会对同性恋的容忍度降低。在家庭内部,同性恋很难发表意见。O'Regan 表示""对于女同性恋来说,他们没有出柜或表达自己痛苦的机制。因此很多人自杀或离家出走,只为了逃避强迫的婚姻。"一份2010年由柬埔寨人权中心 Cambodian Center for Human Rights)发布的报告显示,总体来说,如果不影响传统的家庭结构,柬埔寨社会对男同性恋行为比较容忍。但妇女担负着早婚和生育的职责,所以面临的压力更大。


     O'Regan
认为要改变同性恋,特别是女同性恋在家庭中的地位的关键是帮助LGBT成员获得经济上的独立。她说一些经济独立的女同性恋不但能获得家庭的认同,也能获得所处社区的认可,因为她们能为社区基金做出贡献。


    
虽然和某些其它国家相比,柬埔寨社会对同性恋的接受度较高,但O'Regan仍很肯定地表示此类活动必须低调地进行。"如果我们要高调宣传的话就没办法开 展现在这些活动了。同时,我们也不能依靠NGO来调解,因为NGO对于任何跟维权相关的话题都望而却步。" O'Regan说。


    
在柬埔寨组织LGBT骄傲周这样的活动依靠的是非正式的志愿者网络。"为了确保处于社会边缘的群体不被一刀切,我们必须利用一些非正式网络,很多资助方对 此非常理解。"她表示。长远来说,LyO'Regan都希望柬埔寨LGBT骄傲周能够增进柬埔寨社会对不同性取向的接受度与理解。


Asia Report 翻译

组织:Rainbow Community Kampuchea (RoCK).


原文链接:http://www.towardfreedom.com/home/asia/2407-lgbt-pride-week-in-cambodia-reconciling-family-norms-with-sexual-orientation

Siena Anstis

Last week, Cambodia finished celebrating its third official lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) pride celebration, a week of movie screenings, workshops and other activities organized by Rainbow Community Kampuchea (RoCK).

The celebration of LGBT rights in Cambodia has come a long way. Between 2003 and the first official LGBT pride week in 2009, these celebrations in Cambodia were limited to just one evening a year.

Collette O'Regan, a member of the organizing committee, says that the hosting of such an extensive and well-organized week, like Pride 2011, marks a new beginning for LGBT rights in Cambodia. Previously, it was mostly the 'men having sex with men' or MSM community that was organized and supported by donors. This necessarily excluded women and stigmatized transgender and sexual orientation by linking it to HIV/AIDS. "You can imagine what this leads to, including horrific discrimination, violence, self-harm and suicide," she said.

O'Regan agrees that discrimination towards the LGBT community in Cambodia is not on the same publicly homophobic and violent scale as in other countries (although there are worrying instances of violence, such as the recent beating of LGBT bar owner KyePoirrier).

For example, in Uganda, David Kato, a Ugandan LGBT rights activist, was murdered after appearing on the front page of Rolling Stone, a Ugandan newspaper. The newspaper had published a photo of Kato and other people it said were gay under the headline "Hang Them."

O'Regan suggests the relative lack of violent homophobia in Cambodia is linked to the country's official religion, Buddhism, which is more tolerant of homosexuality. Pisey Ly, a Cambodian LGBT rights activist, also points out that - save for Cambodia's family law, which only allows for opposite sex marriages - laws do not discriminate on the grounds of sexual orientation (in other countries, like Uganda, homosexuality is illegal). "Our constitution guarantees all citizens rights, to enjoy those rights no matter what your sexual orientation is." Nor does she ask for special treatment: "There is no specific law protecting LGBT rights, nor [does the LGBT community] feel like they need a specific law. They want to be treated like other citizens."

The struggle, however, is in having these basic universal rights enforced for LGBT individuals. She tells the story of a family who threatened to have their lesbian daughter's partner raped. Another family paid a bribe to the police to have their daughter's partner intimidated. One lesbian girl told Ly that her family threatened to have her killed. Had that happened, Ly doubts that the police would have intervened. Ly suggests that this type of behavior among law enforcement officials can be associated with a lack of information, "They do not understand what sexual orientation is and think it is unnatural."

While political figures have generally been tolerant of homosexuality, there have been some notable exceptions, for instance, when Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen publicly disowned his lesbian daughter. This also suggests a less tolerant environment. Homophobia is also particularly pronounced within the family. "For lesbians, there is no mechanism for them to come out and express what they are suffering. They are also committing suicide or running away from home because they are being forced to marry," says O'Regan. As detailed in an extensive report published in 2010 by the Cambodian Center for Human Rights (CCHR), Cambodian society is generally tolerant of male homosexual behavior if it does not affect the traditional family structure. Women, who are expected to marry young and have children, are faced with more family pressures.

O'Regan believes one critical way to combat homophobia in the family in Cambodia, particularly for lesbians, is to focus on helping LGBT members become economically independent.  

"Everyone, like most Cambodians, is poverty challenged. People just want to be able to have a decent life, so they need decent work," she explains, "One hugely effective way of getting family acceptance in Cambodia is to have a job, to be able to help your family very practically."

She says that some of the lesbians who are economically independent are not only accepted by their families, but also by their communities since they can contribute to community fundraising. "This is another way in which the rest of the community stands back and says well I guess they are alright, they are doing what everyone else is doing."

 

Despite a greater general public acceptance of homosexuality in Cambodia compared to other countries, O'Regan is still firm that these types of events could not happen unless they remain under the radar. "There is no way we could do what we are doing if we were blowing it from trumpets. If it were being mediated by NGOs it would also not be happening because NGOs are terrified of anything to do with rights."

The real success in organizing an event like the LGBT Pride Week in Cambodia is the use of informal voluntary networks. "There are a couple of donors who understand that [informal networks] are what one needs in a civil society in order to make sure that marginalized groups don't get cut out altogether." In the long-run, both Ly and O'Regan hope that the LGBT pride celebration in Cambodia will contribute to greater acceptance and understanding of different sexual orientations in Cambodia.

Organization: Rainbow Community Kampuchea (RoCK).

Weblink:
http://www.towardfreedom.com/home/asia/2407-lgbt-pride-week-in-cambodia-reconciling-family-norms-with-sexual-orientation


    自愿非盈利性组织RoCK成立于2009年,机构致力于通过认可和促进对持有各种性向和性别认同(SOGI)群体的平等对待和尊重,支持柬埔寨男、女同性恋、双性恋、变性者(LGBT);加强LGBT支持网络,并提高柬埔寨社会对该群体的理解。

网站: http://www.phnompenhpride.blogspot.com/

组织:

Afesip Cambodia

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Afesip Cambodia于1996年成立于柬埔寨,是一间无党派、无宗教背景的基层非政府组织。机构致力于打击以性奴为目的的妇女和儿童人口贩卖。通过提供以受害者为中心的关怀治疗,实施成功和持续的复原和重新融入社区项目,最终确保受害者的权利不受侵害。

网址:http://www.afesip.org/
地址: Administration, Human Resource and Communication Department,#62CE0, Street 598, Boeung Kak 2,Toul Kork, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

电话: (855) 23 884 123
传真: (855) 23 884 123


E-mail: info@afesip.org

邮寄地址: P.O.Box 2089,Phnom Penh 3,Cambodia.

The United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV & AIDS passed a Declaration of Commitment in 2001 and Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS in 2006 to fight against the spread of HIV. In the Declaration member countries committed to regularly submit a country report, every two year. ARAM Asia organized a capacity building workshop to enhance the understanding on UNGASS reporting mechanisms and to mobiles advocacy efforts in respective countries. After the capacity building workshop majority of members became very active in implementing the work plan developed in the workshop to meet the objectives.  Following is the summary of member's engagement at national level which shows the momentum developed and successful advocacy efforts for the purpose.

 

Summary of Member's Engagement at National Level to Implement Planned Advocacy Strategy  

The Capacity Building Workshop on the UNGASS Reporting Mechanisms for CARAM Asia Members in South Asia as well as in Southeast Asia who are members of Migration, Health & HIV Task Force was very successful in enlightening members on the concerned issues and ways of getting involved in reporting process at government level and with UNAIDS team in their respective countries.  During the workshop different obstacles were identified which need to be addressed to pursue the UNGASS reporting process for the inclusion of migrant workers HIV issues in the report.  The participants developed a work plan comprised on advocacy activities to address the identified obstacles and to get involved into the process. 
  After the workshop in Nepal on 5th and 6th December 2009, most of the members were very active in implementing advocacy activities and approaching National AIDS Control Programmes, relevant government agencies and UNAIDS in their countries to met the objectives.  Members are still engaged in advocacy measures; however some of the shared country-wise details of taken actions are given below:


Bangladesh
  OKUP has approached the Programme Manager at National AIDS and STD Programme working under Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Bangladesh.  Mr. Shakil from OKUP discussed with him the matter related to inclusion of migrant workers' HIV & AIDS issues into the report.  OKUP is also in contact with concerned officers at UNAIDS in Bangladesh to advocate for the inclusion of migrant worker's issues into the National Strategic Plan and had informal discussion on UNGASS reporting matters. 

 Additionally OKUP has conducted a situation assessment study on HIV preventive education for labour migrants commissioned by IOM in collaboration with UNAIDS. The research results provide a substantive ground to have an advocacy meeting to promote the HIV issue of labour migrants.

 

 Rights Jessore issued a press release on the occasion of International Migrants' Day (18th Dec) and included related issues from joint statement developed in the workshop for media advocacy. 
SHOSTI is also in process of submitting CARAM Asia Policy Brief on Mandatory Testing and Joint Statement to high level government officials as advocacy efforts.

 


Cambodia, CARAM Cambodia
  The resource person Dr. Kem Ley is a consultant for government of Cambodia to lead the process of writing UNGASS report for the country.  While sharing his experiences he also learned about migrant's issues and included the subject into his report and shared the Cambodia UNGASS Report-NCPI with CARAM Cambodia and all other concerned members.  The achievements, challenges and recommendations concerning to the rights of migrant workers and mobility were included into the report. 


Indonesia
SP and UNIMIG
  On 18th January 2010, SP and UNIMIG have joined as new members of UNGASS FORUM Indonesia. To push for the inclusion of migrant worker's issues into national UNGASS report.  The CARAM member's participation has resulted in a development that migrant workers issues will be included in the UNGASS report of Indonesia. 

 Additionally UNGASS Forum Indonesia planed to submit a parallel report of UNGASS-Indonesia, for that SP and UNIMIG arranged to have a meeting with the coordinator of UNGASS Forum Indonesia to discuss especially about migrant workers issues. 

  The CSO Forum decided to write a shadow report on UNGASS 2010.  SP made sure the inclusion of migrant worker's issues in the shadow report which covers various concerned areas on the subject.  Being member of CSO Forum, SP received invitation to attend a meeting organized by NAC to share the country report prepared by Indonesian government and get inputs on migrant worker's HIV & AIDS related issues. 

 
Japan, SHARE
  SHARE identified lead CSOs in Japan working for UNGASS which include [Africa Japan Forum (AJF), Japan AIDS & Society (JAS), Japanese network of people living with HIV/AIDS (JaNP+)].  They networked with other CSOs [SHARE, CHARM, and CRIATIVOS] working on migrant rights and HIV to include migrant's HIV & AIDS related issues in UNGASS 2010 report.  

 

Sri Lanka, CDS
CDS is flagging the concerns on migrant worker's HIV related issues to the UNGASS working group same as CARAM's concerns.  Due to efforts currently there is some mention on MWs in the NCPI part B; however that is not at the larger policy level.


Thailand Raks,  Thai Foundation

For the UNGASS reporting - Raks Thai Foundation is involved in the sub-committee on migrant and refugee populations on the UNGASS report. They have already submitted a "best practices" section and will submit another small section reporting on their work under the PHAMIT Project and other relevant statistics as available.


Vietnam, IHED

Following the discussion on Advocacy measures in the UNGASS training workshop, IHED in Vietnam  carried out the first two activities:
1. Identified the lead CSOs in Vietnam on UNGASS reporting: ISDS (Institute for Social Development Studies - its website is http://www.isds.org.vn) and UNGASS civil society forum in Vietnam

(its website is http://www.vcspa.org.vn/DetailIntroduction.aspx?IntroID=4) 
2. IHED have sent them registration form to be one of their forum's members. This will take some time, but IHED can meet all their requirements for registration, so IHED can network with them.

 

The Gulf is a major destination for migrant workers, particularly those from Southern Asia and South East Asia. Gulf countries are also widely known for the consistent and endemic violations perpetrated against migrant workers. When it comes to the death penalty, the number of migrants who are killed by judicial execution is grossly disproportional to the size of their populations. 

Discrimination on the basis of religion, nationality and ethnicity are common human rights violations in most Gulf States. Migrants from Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Sudan, Ethiopia, and numerous other countries travel to the Gulf States to work mainly in the domestic work or low-skilled labor sectors. These workers routinely experience restrictions on their freedom of expression, religion and religious practice, access to justice, access to healthcare, the withholding of passports, threats, physical, verbal or sexual abuse, non-payment of wages, as well as unsafe and unhygienic living and working conditions.

 

Conclusion
As this report shows, the weight of the executioner's sword falls heaviest on those who are most vulnerable in Gulf societies. Legal and procedural problems, lapses in implementation of law, judgments of questionable validity, lack of access to support and assistance all contribute to the highly disproportional number of migrant's killed using the death penalty by these states. Justice, as we have seen, is not blind - it knows nationality, race, language and money, and the harshest penalties in are reserved for those among the least able to defend themselves.

Recommendations
To the governments of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia;
• To declare a suspension on judicial executions.
• To uphold and ensure the implementation of the highest standards of judicial practice - including open, free and fair trials
• To ensure access to legal representation for all defendants facing the death penalty
• To provide access to information and translation services for migrants at all relevant legal and governmental institutions.
To representatives of sending countries;
• Sending countries should stop prioritizing remittances over the life, health, happiness, rights and safety of their nationals.
• To establish consular or embassy level presence in Gulf states
• To assign a legal envoy to deal with labour issues
• To provide legal information, assistance and representation to nationals who cannot afford it themselves
• To provide information to all migrants about their rights and the laws of the receiving country in own language

To Local NGO's, social, and charitable organizations;
• To provide assistance to embassy staff in producing and disseminating informational material for migrant workers
• To provide assistance and follow-up support work to migrant workers involved in legal disputes
To media organizations in receiving countries;
• To cease media campaigns inciting racial hatred against migrant workers
• To provide consistent, fair and accurate coverage of migrant issues 



Edited by Asia Report

Weblink:http://www.caramasia.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=858&Itemid=51


Organizations:
CARAM Asia

CARAM Cambodia

Rights Jessore

Rak Thai Foundation

健康环境和发展协会(IHED)

Solidaritas Perempuan (SP)

Union Migrant Indonesia(UNIMIG)

SHARE

CDS



柬埔寨CARAM由国际关怀(CARE International)机构支持(荷兰政府提供财政支持),和马来西亚、泰国、越南、菲律宾、印尼、香港、孟加拉国的CARAM组织一样,隶属总部位于马来西亚的CARAM Asia。

柬埔寨CARAM主要针对两个移民群体:制衣工和性工作者开展研究工作。同时,柬埔寨CARAM也为跨国移民工人提供出行前的培训。希望通过网络建设和对移民工人的持续关注,增强柬埔寨社会对移民工群体的关注。

倡导是柬埔寨CARAM的工作重点。在法律、服务以及对社会对移民工的态度和认知方面的改进有助于降低移民工感染性传播疾病(STDs)和艾滋病的机率。

网站:http://www.bigpond.com.kh/users/caram.cam/ca00002.htm

地址(与国际关怀组织共享):House 18A, Street 370,Quarter Boeung Keng Kang I,District Chamcar Morn,Phnom Penh, Cambodia 或 CARAM Project,PO Box 537,Phnom Penh Cambodia

电话:(855) 023-721-115

传站:(855) 023-426-233

电子邮件: care.cam@bigpond.com.kh

亚洲艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织

关于建全联大特别会议汇报机制研讨会的报告

 

      联大特别会议(UNGASS)艾滋病毒和艾滋病的议题通过了2001年承诺宣言和2006年政治宣言以对抗艾滋病毒/艾滋病的传播。各联大会员国在宣言中承诺每两年定期提交一份关于各国的报告。亚洲艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织举办了一个研讨会以对建全联大特别会议汇报机制以及各国在宣传动员方面的努力加强了认识和了解。研讨会之后,大多数的成员国能够积极地执行研讨会制定的计划以实现既定的目标。

 

      以下的总结显示了各个会员国政府的参与所带来的发展势头以及宣传方面的成效。

 

各会员国政府实施宣传战略的总结

 

      为同时也是移民,卫生与艾滋病工作队成员的南亚和东南亚地区亚洲艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织成员举办的关于建全联大特别会议汇报机制研讨会在相关的议题和政府参与报告的过程等方面,成功地启发了上述组织成员以及联合国艾滋病规划署在各个联大成员国的工作团队。会议期间,为将移民工人的艾滋病议题包括在报告中,研讨会提出并确定了需要联大特别会议予以报告的各种问题。为此,与会者并制定了一个以宣传活动为主的工作计划。


   
为了实现既定的目标,大多数成员在2009125日和6日于尼泊尔举办的研讨会后,都非常积极地进行了宣传活动,开始参与全国艾滋病控制计划,与有关的政府机构和其各自所在国的联合国艾滋病规划署机构进行了接触。虽然各个成员国仍处于制定宣传措施的阶段,但仍有以下一些全国范围的行动细节可以用来参考:


孟加拉

 

       移民工人发展计划组织已与孟加拉国政府卫生和家庭福利部所属的全国艾滋病和性病计划的项目执行经理进行了接触。移民工人发展计划组织的Shakil先生与该经理就将移民工人的艾滋病议题包括在报告中进行了讨论。 

 

      此外,在国际移民组织与联合国艾滋病规划署共同委托下,移民工人发展计划组织进行了一项关于艾滋病毒预防教育评估性的研究。研究结果为促进解决移民工人的艾滋病毒问题而将举办的一个宣导会提供了确切的依据。

 

      Rights Jessore于国际移民日(1218日)发表了一则新闻,其中包括研讨会期间制定的与媒体宣传联合声明有关的议题。


   
为了进一步推广宣传,SHOSTI正准备向政府的高层官员提供亚洲艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织有关强制性检测和联合声明的政策简报。

 

柬埔寨


柬埔寨艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织(CARAM Cambodia)

      提供信息的人士Kem Ley博士是柬埔寨政府的顾问,负责该国撰写联大特别会议的报告。提供他的经验的同时,Kem Ley博士也了解了移民的问题并将这些问题纳入了他的报告。 他并且与柬埔寨艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织以及所有其他有关的成员互相交流了联大特别会议柬埔寨部分的报告 - 国家综合政策指数。该报告囊括了与移民工人及其移徙的权利有关的所取得的成就,遇到的挑战以及提出的建议。


印度尼西亚


Solidaritas Perempuan
移民工人工会(UNIMIG)


   
为了促进将移民工人的问题纳入联大特别会议相关国家的报告中,SP移民工人工会于2010118加入了联大特别会议印度尼西亚论坛而成为其新的成员。由于艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织成员的参与,结果导致了移民工入的问题将被纳入印度尼西亚的联大特别会议报告中。

 

      此外,联大特别会议印度尼西亚论坛准备提交一份关于联大特别会议印度尼西亚部分的非正式报告。为此,SP移民工人工会安排了一个与联大特别会议印度尼西亚论坛协调员的会议,专门讨论关于移民工人问题。

     民间社会组织论坛决定撰写一份关于2010年联大特别会议的非正式报告。SP确保了移民工人的问题被纳入涵盖与议题有关各个领域的非正式报告中。 作为民间组织论坛的成员,SP受邀参加了一个由NAC举办的会议,对印度尼西亚政府关于该国的报告以及移民工人与艾滋病有关的问题进行了交流和了解。

 
日本:SHARE


   SHARE
确定了为联大特别会议工作的主要日本民间社会组织, 其中包括非洲日本论坛(AJF),日本艾滋病与社会(JAS),日本艾滋病患者网络组织(JaNP+。他们与其他民间社会组织 [SHARE, CHARM, CRIATIVOS] 构建成了一个网络,在将移民权利和艾滋病问题纳入联大特别会议2010年报告的工作中相互协作。

 

斯里兰卡社区发展服务组织(CDS)


  
艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织一样,CDS就关于移民工人艾滋病的问题向联大特别会议工作组表示了同样的关注。经过努力,尽管国家综合政策指数中的B部分提到了MWs,但是这还不是在重要的政策层面。


泰国Raks Thai Foundation


  
就联大特别会议的报告机制来说,泰国Raks基金会涉及与联大特别会议报告有关移民和难民人口的分组委员会。作为报告的一小部分,该基金会已经提交了一个名为"最佳做法"的章节并且将就其执行泰国移民工人艾滋病防治计划(PHAMIT)的工作以及其他一些相关的统计工作提交另一个章节。

 

越南:健康环境和发展学会(IHED)

 

      经过在联大特别会议举办的培训班里进行的讨论,在越南的健康环境和发展学会实施了所制定的措施中前两项活动:

 

1. 确定了在越南涉及联大特别会议报告机制的主要民间社会组织:ISDS(社会发展研究学会 - 其网址是http://www.isds.org.vn)和在越南的联大特别会议民间社会论坛(其网址是http://www.vcspa.org.vn/DetailIntroduction.aspx?IntroID=4

 

2. 健康环境和发展学会向联大特别会议民间社会论坛递交了成为其会员的申请表。虽然还需要一些时间,但健康环境和发展学会符合政策条件。如此,健康环境和发展学会将能够与其他组织相互进行合作。

 

      海湾地区是移民工人特别是来自南亚和东南亚地区的移民工人的目的地。海湾国家一向以普遍地侵犯移民工人权益而昭著。当涉及到死刑的时候,被司法系统处死的移民人数与其在当地人口的总数不成比例。

 

      对宗教,民族和种族的歧视在海湾国家是普遍的行为。来自孟加拉,印度,斯里兰卡,尼泊尔,巴基斯坦,菲律宾,印度尼西亚,苏丹,埃塞俄比亚以及其他一些国家的移民在海湾国家主要从事家务工作或低技术劳务工作。这些工人通常受到言论自由,宗教自由,诉诸司法和享有医疗保健的限制。他们的护照被扣留,受到身体和语言上的威胁以至于性的虐待。他们收不到工资并且在不安全和不卫生的条件下工作。

 

结论


   
正如这份报告所揭示,在海湾地区最弱势的群体最容易成为牺牲品。法律和程序问题,执法律上的失误,判决是否公正,得不到支持和援助等导致了海湾国家的移民被处死的人数极不成比例。于是我们看到,在这些国家里,司法是有偏见的 - 基于不同的国籍,种族,语言甚至于财富等因素,那些最弱势最无法保护自己的群体往往受到最严厉的对待和处罚。


建议

 

致巴林和沙特阿拉伯

•宣布暂缓死刑
•维护和确保执行司法的最高标准 - 包括公开,自由和公正的审判
•确保所有面对死刑的被告人都能获得律师的援助
•在所有相关的法律和政府机构向移民提供信息和翻译服务

致移民母国的代表

•移民的母国应放弃赚取海外汇款优先于人的生命,健康,福祉,权利和安全的政策
•在海湾国家设立大使或领事机构
•指派法律特使来处理劳工问题
•向负担不起费用的海外国民提供法律信息,援助和代理
•以母国的语言文字向移民工人提供其所在国有关他们的权利和法律方面的信息


致当地的非政府组织,社会以及慈善机构和组织

•协助使馆工作人员准备和发放给移民工人的信息材料
•向涉及法律纠纷的移民工人提供协助和后续援助工作


致移民所在国家的媒体机构和组织
•要停止媒体针对移民工人所作的种族仇恨宣传
•提供关于移民工人问题一贯,公正和准确的报道



Asia Report编译


原文链接:http://www.caramasia.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=858&Itemid=51


组织:

CARAM Asia 

CARAM Cambodia

Rights Jessore

Rak Thai Foundation

健康环境和发展协会(IHED)

Solidaritas Perempuan (SP)

Union Migrant Indonesia(UNIMIG)

SHARE

CDS

 

Witness

 

    当你在星期六晚上高歌《活在祈祷中》('Living on a Prayer')时,你可曾想过卡拉ok也可以成为人权的宣传工具?

   
那么让我们来看看亚太性工作者网络(APNSW)是如何做到的吧。该机构有效地运用卡拉ok来处理性工作者所遭遇的暴力和歧视(因为APNSW的影片制作 人Dale曾参加过Witness视频倡导协会的活动,因此在过去三年中两家机构一直保持着密切的合作)。尤其在亚洲地区,卡拉ok是一项颇受欢迎的娱乐 活动。对于很多性工作者来说,卡拉ok也很容易接触到。

   
我与APNSW的对话从一个视频开始。这个名为 'One Whore'(《一名妓女》)的视频改编自U2乐队的'One'(《一》)这首歌,最初是为2006年举办的国际艾滋大会而创作,经过在该会议上的现场演出后,这首歌广为流传,之后被制作成视频影像。


      APNSW最新的视频作品名为'Bad Rehab'(《糟糕的复原》,<观看影片>),改编自Lady Gaga的歌曲'Bad Romance'(《野蛮浪漫》)。这支视频用芭比娃娃做道具,带来了意想不到的强烈冲击。它对柬埔寨境内用搜捕和营救作为反贩卖人口的方法提出质疑。'One whore''Bad Rehab'这两首歌的视频以性工作者为主要观众,因为她们中很多人都唱卡拉ok。将通过这个媒介她们将学习到很多东西,并能够与其他人分享。

作'Bad Rehab'这首歌的灵感来自于APNSW对金边性工作者的采访。在采访中,她们谈到自己是如何被逮捕,有些人遭到殴打和轮奸。然后她们全部被送进康复中心,那里简直和监狱一样(APNSW2008年的纪录片《在老虎和鳄鱼的魔爪间》('Caught Between the Tiger and the Crocodile')用常规的影像方式记录了这些故事)。这些经历最近也被人权观察收进其报告中。

性工作者表示,她们所经历过的反贩卖人口复原项目差别很大。一位年轻的女士在被警察逮捕之后被安置在5个不同的非政府组织里(NGOs),其中有些机构致力于解救街边的性工作者,并为她们提供培训。而在有些地方她仅仅是被锁在康复中心里,甚至在有些地方她被迫做缝纫工作,而工钱少到跟在血汗工厂没两样。

这支视频将目标锁定于柬埔寨反贩卖人口运动的领袖人物Somaly Mam以及她的机构AFESIP。正如APNSW所说:"在全球反非法交易运动中Somaly是新面孔。她声称她在维护人权,但是据我们了解,她的机构非法拘留性工作者,这有悖于人权精神。我们已经厌倦了某些人和某些机构打着反贩卖人口的旗号,事实上却是反性工作的,甚至想要把所有性工作列为非法......在Somaly Mam风光地走在红地毯上的时候,很多人却被她非法拘留在康复中心里。"

APNSW希望通过这个视频,把Somaly的所作所为公之于众,并重点强调那些好莱坞明星为其提供的善款都流向何处。

你可以观看我们对APNSW进行的一个简短的采访,并从中了解到更多如何在倡导工作中运用幽默感(节选自《战术技术集合--咨询行动主义的10个策略》)。

如果你曾看过任何精彩的卡拉ok倡导案例,请在留言板上与我们分享。



Asia Report 翻译

原文链接:http://blog.witness.org/2010/11/karaoke-human-rights-videos-from-cambodia/



机构: Witness
         亚太性工作者网络(APNSWl
          Afesip Cambodia


 

As you belt out 'Living on a Prayer' on a Saturday night have you ever thought how karaoke could be used for human rights?

Well, meet the work of the Asia Pacific Network of Sex Workers (APNSW), who effectively use karaoke to address violence and discrimination against sex workers (WITNESS has worked closely and  trained with APNSW in the past three years, since their lead video creator, Dale, participated in our Video Advocacy Institute). Particularly in Asia, karaoke is an incredibly popular entertainment, as well as one that is very accessible to many sex workers.

I talked with APNSW about their work, starting with this video: 'One Whore' which repurposes the U2 song 'One.' It was initially created for the International Aids Conference in 2006, where it was performed live, and was then widely distributed  as a video.

APNSW's latest video is entitled 'Bad Rehab' and re-purposes the Lady Gaga song  'Bad Romance to compelling effect (and with the help of Barbie dolls) as a sing-along that challenges the use of raid and rescue as an anti-trafficking measure in Cambodia. With both 'One Whore' and 'Bad Rehab' the videos' primary target audiences are sex workers themselves, many of whom will sing karaoke. They will learn about issues via this storytelling medium, and be able to share it with others.

'Bad Rehab' grew out of APNSW's experience interviewing sex workers in Phnom Penh. They explained in their interviews how they had been arrested, some had been beaten or gang raped, and then they had been sent to rehabilitation centers that were more like jails (see APNSW's 2008 film  'Caught Between the Tiger and the Crocodile' to see this presented in more conventional video format). These experiences have been corroborated in recent Human Rights Watch reporting.

Sex workers also told how their experiences of the anti-trafficking rehabilitation programs were very varied. One young woman had been arrested by the police and placed over five times with different NGOs who said they were saving women from the street, and would give them training courses. In some places she had just been locked in a rehabilitation center, and some places she had to do sewing with pay so low it was not any different from being in a sweatshop.

The video is targeted at  Somaly Mam, a leading figure of the anti-trafficking movement in Cambodia and her organization AFESIP. As APNSW explains:  "Somaly is the new face of global anti-trafficking. She say it's about human rights - but we know that her center illegally detains sex workers, which is also against human rights. We are sick of people and organisations who use anti-trafficking messages but are really anti-sex work and want to make all sex work illegal..., Somaly Mam walks the red carpet when people that she kept in rehabilitation centre are being detained illegally in many cases."

With the video APNSW hopes to focus attention on Somaly Mam, to publicize the facts about what she is doing, and highlight where the money of her Hollywood celebrity supporters goes to.

You can watch a short interview with APNSW as well as learn more about the use of humor in activism in this excerpt from the Tactical Technology Collective's '10 Tactics for Info-Activism'.

If you've seen any great examples of karaoke advocacy, please share them in the comments section!


Weblink: http://blog.witness.org/2010/11/karaoke-human-rights-videos-from-cambodia/


Organization: Witness

                     The Asia Pacific Network of Sex Workers (APNSW)

                     Afesip Cambodia

在金边度过的假期

| 评论(0)


 

来自伦敦的戒毒工作者Lee Sugden讲述了一次令人难忘的金边之旅,让他在毒品充斥的街头置身于减少伤害行动的前线。

到达金边这个首都城市不久,我与一个名为'Korsang'的减少伤害行动组织取得了联系,该组织是由一个叫做Holly Bradford的美国戒毒工作者于2004年建立起来的非政府组织。Holly开始的时候是执行一个艾滋病防治计划,主要是向在街头向吸毒者发放清洁的注射器。自建立以来,Korsang迅速地发展为现今柬埔寨最主要的戒毒组织。

 

毋庸置疑的是柬埔寨在过去经历了独裁者波尔布特以及他所领导的红色高棉政权统治下血腥的战争和饥饿。一百多万人被红色高棉政权所杀害,成千上万的人为了避难迫不得已而逃离了这个国家成为难民,其中很多人逃到了美国。

 

由于9/11事件的原因,乔治布什修改了美国的法律,如果难民犯有重罪将被驱逐出境。至今,已有170名年轻的美国柬埔寨人或者说难民被遣送回对他们来说叫做柬埔寨的一个国家。

 

由于很多难民出生在泰国和柬埔寨边境上的难民营里,并在儿童时期进入美国,他们当中很多人讲美国口音的英语,对高棉(柬埔寨)语和文化几乎是一无所知。在毫无准备的情况下,这些难民忽然发现他们流离失所于金边这个第三世界国家的城市街头,没有任何社会援助和福利。

 

金边到处充斥来自缅甸的高纯度海洛因和一种叫做yamma(甲基苯丙胺)的毒品。一些人沉醉于吸毒和酗酒以逃避现实中所处的困境,显然是无法自贫困中脱离出来。

 

在创建Korsang的时候,Holly很有先见之明地雇用了一些难民,现在他们成为该组织的中坚力量。他们为社区做出了很大的贡献,同时也提高了自身就业的能力,为自己创造了乐观的职业前景。

 

Korsang现位于金边市中心一所坚固的三层楼房里,有60名工作人员。他们每日供应两次食物,为每周五天的青少年活动提供设施,执行减少危害活动计划,注射器以旧换新,急救,医疗援助和推广工作。他们的全职医生已经接生过婴儿,从肢体里取出折断的注射器,缝合严重的创伤,以及对被送到他们那里吸食毒品过量、甚至有生命危险的病患进行治疗。

 

我有幸能够与基层团队一起外出并亲眼目睹了减少伤害前线工作所面对的严峻现实。在金边尘土飞扬的街道上驱车一段时间以后,我们停在一个废弃的房子旁边。我们仔细地将散落在地上的废弃注射器收集起来放在篮子里。基层团队每天都会到这所房子里进行巡视,有时一次就能够收集到几百个用过的注射器。戒毒工作者们在巡视的过程中将清洁的注射器交给吸毒者并在与其交谈的过程中鼓励他们参加戒毒的活动计划。

 

然后,我们驱车几个街区到达另一条大街。这个尘土飞扬的街道上人群熙熙攘攘,其中忙于自己生计的普通民众对明目张胆的毒品交易活动熟视无睹。让我感到吃惊的是,失去知觉的吸毒者躺在路边而过路人则不得不从他们的身体上跨过去。

 

尽管柬埔寨面对着艾滋病和丙型肝炎的严重问题,但在滥用毒品的社区却很少有人死于这两者疾病。你也许会问'为什么?'因为在病毒还未发作之前他们就已经死去了。他们通常会沦为其他感染源的牺牲品,不得不忍受日趋恶化的各种躯体溃烂。

 

那天我们最后探访了一处平民窟。在那里我们发放了保险套和装有肥皂,牙膏,牙刷以及基础的卫生保健知识宣传册的工具袋。

 

由于这一类贫民窟是未来吸毒者肥沃的滋生地,因此,基层团队尝试在众多类似的居民区里与青少年打交道,并向他们讲述吸毒的危害。




 

在利用几个月环游澳大利亚和东南亚地区以前,Lee SugdenWalthamstow Open AccessWestminster Drug Project (WDP)的戒毒工作者



组织: 高棉重建(Korsang Khmer)

Asia Report 翻译
英文原文:http://www.korsangkhmer.org/news.html


 

加入邮件组: yzdc@asiacatalyst.org

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