孟加拉国

CARAM Asia


Foreward

  The unprecedented economic growth and social and economic inequalities that Asia is experiencing combine to create complex  push and pull factors that have led to large movements of people in the region.  At any given point in time, there are an estimated 54 million people on the move outside of their home countries within Asia and beyond, and almost half that number, are estimated to be women. Asia is one of the largest suppliers of international migrant women who serve as domestic workers.

Outside Asia, the countries of the Arab States region are the primary destination for a majority of migrant workers from the Philippines, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The economic gains generated by migrant workers to both countries of origin and host countries are considerable reaching almost 8% of GDP in Sri Lanka and as high as 17% of the national GDP in the Philippines.  Yet, there is a major disconnect between the economic contribution of migrant workers and the poor conditions and meager support many receive throughout their migration journey.

A key issue of concern with cross border and overseas migration is HIV and AIDS. In recent years, an increasing number of migrant workers from Asia have been diagnosed with HIV in various countries in the Arab States. Deportations due to HIV status have resulted in severe economic loss for migrant workers and their families, who have been declared by local authorities as "unfit" to work abroad.

Governments from Asian countries have also been concerned about this issue. The Ministers of Health from the Governments of Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India, the Philippines and Bangladesh called for a meeting on the issue at the time of the World Health Assembly of 2007 highlighting the need to engage in inter regional dialogue with countries from the Arab States region to find ways to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities to HIV that migrant workers face..

 

  The purpose of this study was commissioned to shed light on the complex relationship between migration and HIV vulnerability, with a special focus on the vulnerabilities faced by Asian migrant women.

Through in-depth and focus group discussions, the study discloses the vulnerabilities that Asian migrant women encounter throughout the migration cycle. They often leave for overseas work under unsafe conditions, live in very difficult circumstances, and are often targets of sexual exploitation and violence before they depart, during their transit and stay in host countries and on return to their countries of origin. With little or no access to health services and social protection, these factors combine to make Asian women migrants highly vulnerable to HIV.

Confronted with inadequate policies and legislation that are not enforceable in host countries, migrant women often have limited or no access to justice and redress mechanisms, especially in Gulf countries. If they are found HIV positive, they face deportation and back in their countries of origin they experience discrimination and social isolation in addition to the difficulty of finding alternative livelihoods.

  As the research shows, there are several good practices from both countries of origin  and host countries that are making a difference to migrant's lives, from the bilateral agreements negotiated between the Philippines and host countries, to social protection afforded to migrants in Lebanon. It is the intention of this study to highlight emerging good practice, deepen our understanding of the linkages between HIV and migration to inform and shape more effective policy and programme responses for Asian migrant women that will ensure safe mobility with dignity, equity and justice.


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Organization: CARAM ASIA

CARAM Asia 报告



移民妇女面对对艾滋病病毒的脆弱性:从亚洲到阿拉伯地区

--从静默、引以为耻、羞愧到有尊严、公平和公正地安全迁移的转变

 

前言

亚洲地区空前的经济增长带来了巨大的社会和经济不平等,这直接成为该地区大量人口流动的动因。据估计,目前亚洲流动人口人数达到五千四百万,其中将近一半是妇女。亚洲已成为国际家庭保姆的主要来源地。亚洲以外的其它地区,例如阿拉伯国家,是来自菲律宾、孟加拉、斯里兰卡、巴基斯坦的移民妇女工人的首选目的地。

目前对跨境和海外移民主要关注的一个问题是艾滋病病毒和艾滋病的传染。近几年,在很多阿拉伯国家,越来越多的亚洲移民工人被诊断出感染了艾滋病毒。因感染艾滋病毒而被遣返回国的工人失去经济来源,对其家庭造成巨大影响。

亚洲国家政府也高度重视这个问题。2007年巴基斯坦、斯里兰卡、印尼、印度、菲律宾、孟加拉国政府在世界卫生大会上与阿拉伯地区的国家积极展开地区间对话,以降低移民工所面对的艾滋病感染风险和脆弱性。

这个研究的主要关注移民以及其在面对病毒时的脆弱性之间复杂的关系,特别强调亚洲女性移民工所面临的风险。

通过深度访谈和小组讨论,本研究揭示了亚洲女性移民在迁移过程中所遭遇的脆弱性。她们常常在不安全的条件下工作,居住在糟糕的环境里,并经常遭受暴力,成为性奴役的目标、她们缺乏卫生服务和社会保障,这些因素造成了亚洲女性移民面临艾滋病毒时高度的脆弱性。

这个研究也展示了东道国和移民来源国为改善移民状况所实施的优秀的案例,例如菲律宾和东道国签订的双边协议,黎巴嫩为移民工人提供社会保障。本研究意在突显不断出现的良好实践,加深我们对艾滋病毒与移民工人之间的关系的认识,促进相关政策和项目的事实,最终保证亚洲女性移民获得尊严、公平和公正。


Asia Report 编译


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机构:CARAM Asia


The United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV & AIDS passed a Declaration of Commitment in 2001 and Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS in 2006 to fight against the spread of HIV. In the Declaration member countries committed to regularly submit a country report, every two year. ARAM Asia organized a capacity building workshop to enhance the understanding on UNGASS reporting mechanisms and to mobiles advocacy efforts in respective countries. After the capacity building workshop majority of members became very active in implementing the work plan developed in the workshop to meet the objectives.  Following is the summary of member's engagement at national level which shows the momentum developed and successful advocacy efforts for the purpose.

 

Summary of Member's Engagement at National Level to Implement Planned Advocacy Strategy  

The Capacity Building Workshop on the UNGASS Reporting Mechanisms for CARAM Asia Members in South Asia as well as in Southeast Asia who are members of Migration, Health & HIV Task Force was very successful in enlightening members on the concerned issues and ways of getting involved in reporting process at government level and with UNAIDS team in their respective countries.  During the workshop different obstacles were identified which need to be addressed to pursue the UNGASS reporting process for the inclusion of migrant workers HIV issues in the report.  The participants developed a work plan comprised on advocacy activities to address the identified obstacles and to get involved into the process. 
  After the workshop in Nepal on 5th and 6th December 2009, most of the members were very active in implementing advocacy activities and approaching National AIDS Control Programmes, relevant government agencies and UNAIDS in their countries to met the objectives.  Members are still engaged in advocacy measures; however some of the shared country-wise details of taken actions are given below:


Bangladesh
  OKUP has approached the Programme Manager at National AIDS and STD Programme working under Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Bangladesh.  Mr. Shakil from OKUP discussed with him the matter related to inclusion of migrant workers' HIV & AIDS issues into the report.  OKUP is also in contact with concerned officers at UNAIDS in Bangladesh to advocate for the inclusion of migrant worker's issues into the National Strategic Plan and had informal discussion on UNGASS reporting matters. 

 Additionally OKUP has conducted a situation assessment study on HIV preventive education for labour migrants commissioned by IOM in collaboration with UNAIDS. The research results provide a substantive ground to have an advocacy meeting to promote the HIV issue of labour migrants.

 

 Rights Jessore issued a press release on the occasion of International Migrants' Day (18th Dec) and included related issues from joint statement developed in the workshop for media advocacy. 
SHOSTI is also in process of submitting CARAM Asia Policy Brief on Mandatory Testing and Joint Statement to high level government officials as advocacy efforts.

 


Cambodia, CARAM Cambodia
  The resource person Dr. Kem Ley is a consultant for government of Cambodia to lead the process of writing UNGASS report for the country.  While sharing his experiences he also learned about migrant's issues and included the subject into his report and shared the Cambodia UNGASS Report-NCPI with CARAM Cambodia and all other concerned members.  The achievements, challenges and recommendations concerning to the rights of migrant workers and mobility were included into the report. 


Indonesia
SP and UNIMIG
  On 18th January 2010, SP and UNIMIG have joined as new members of UNGASS FORUM Indonesia. To push for the inclusion of migrant worker's issues into national UNGASS report.  The CARAM member's participation has resulted in a development that migrant workers issues will be included in the UNGASS report of Indonesia. 

 Additionally UNGASS Forum Indonesia planed to submit a parallel report of UNGASS-Indonesia, for that SP and UNIMIG arranged to have a meeting with the coordinator of UNGASS Forum Indonesia to discuss especially about migrant workers issues. 

  The CSO Forum decided to write a shadow report on UNGASS 2010.  SP made sure the inclusion of migrant worker's issues in the shadow report which covers various concerned areas on the subject.  Being member of CSO Forum, SP received invitation to attend a meeting organized by NAC to share the country report prepared by Indonesian government and get inputs on migrant worker's HIV & AIDS related issues. 

 
Japan, SHARE
  SHARE identified lead CSOs in Japan working for UNGASS which include [Africa Japan Forum (AJF), Japan AIDS & Society (JAS), Japanese network of people living with HIV/AIDS (JaNP+)].  They networked with other CSOs [SHARE, CHARM, and CRIATIVOS] working on migrant rights and HIV to include migrant's HIV & AIDS related issues in UNGASS 2010 report.  

 

Sri Lanka, CDS
CDS is flagging the concerns on migrant worker's HIV related issues to the UNGASS working group same as CARAM's concerns.  Due to efforts currently there is some mention on MWs in the NCPI part B; however that is not at the larger policy level.


Thailand Raks,  Thai Foundation

For the UNGASS reporting - Raks Thai Foundation is involved in the sub-committee on migrant and refugee populations on the UNGASS report. They have already submitted a "best practices" section and will submit another small section reporting on their work under the PHAMIT Project and other relevant statistics as available.


Vietnam, IHED

Following the discussion on Advocacy measures in the UNGASS training workshop, IHED in Vietnam  carried out the first two activities:
1. Identified the lead CSOs in Vietnam on UNGASS reporting: ISDS (Institute for Social Development Studies - its website is http://www.isds.org.vn) and UNGASS civil society forum in Vietnam

(its website is http://www.vcspa.org.vn/DetailIntroduction.aspx?IntroID=4) 
2. IHED have sent them registration form to be one of their forum's members. This will take some time, but IHED can meet all their requirements for registration, so IHED can network with them.

 

The Gulf is a major destination for migrant workers, particularly those from Southern Asia and South East Asia. Gulf countries are also widely known for the consistent and endemic violations perpetrated against migrant workers. When it comes to the death penalty, the number of migrants who are killed by judicial execution is grossly disproportional to the size of their populations. 

Discrimination on the basis of religion, nationality and ethnicity are common human rights violations in most Gulf States. Migrants from Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Sudan, Ethiopia, and numerous other countries travel to the Gulf States to work mainly in the domestic work or low-skilled labor sectors. These workers routinely experience restrictions on their freedom of expression, religion and religious practice, access to justice, access to healthcare, the withholding of passports, threats, physical, verbal or sexual abuse, non-payment of wages, as well as unsafe and unhygienic living and working conditions.

 

Conclusion
As this report shows, the weight of the executioner's sword falls heaviest on those who are most vulnerable in Gulf societies. Legal and procedural problems, lapses in implementation of law, judgments of questionable validity, lack of access to support and assistance all contribute to the highly disproportional number of migrant's killed using the death penalty by these states. Justice, as we have seen, is not blind - it knows nationality, race, language and money, and the harshest penalties in are reserved for those among the least able to defend themselves.

Recommendations
To the governments of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia;
• To declare a suspension on judicial executions.
• To uphold and ensure the implementation of the highest standards of judicial practice - including open, free and fair trials
• To ensure access to legal representation for all defendants facing the death penalty
• To provide access to information and translation services for migrants at all relevant legal and governmental institutions.
To representatives of sending countries;
• Sending countries should stop prioritizing remittances over the life, health, happiness, rights and safety of their nationals.
• To establish consular or embassy level presence in Gulf states
• To assign a legal envoy to deal with labour issues
• To provide legal information, assistance and representation to nationals who cannot afford it themselves
• To provide information to all migrants about their rights and the laws of the receiving country in own language

To Local NGO's, social, and charitable organizations;
• To provide assistance to embassy staff in producing and disseminating informational material for migrant workers
• To provide assistance and follow-up support work to migrant workers involved in legal disputes
To media organizations in receiving countries;
• To cease media campaigns inciting racial hatred against migrant workers
• To provide consistent, fair and accurate coverage of migrant issues 



Edited by Asia Report

Weblink:http://www.caramasia.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=858&Itemid=51


Organizations:
CARAM Asia

CARAM Cambodia

Rights Jessore

Rak Thai Foundation

健康环境和发展协会(IHED)

Solidaritas Perempuan (SP)

Union Migrant Indonesia(UNIMIG)

SHARE

CDS



组织:

Rights Jessore--解索尔权利

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解索尔权利(Rights Jessore)是孟加拉国的人权机构,致力于保护和促进人权、防止人口贩卖并对受害人开展救援、遣返和复原服务。1991年该机构在孟加拉国注册。通过成立论坛、能力建设、网络建设以及记录人权侵犯等工作,解索尔权利建立了一个预防、保护和解救受害人的良好环境。

愿景
孟加拉社会能够最终成为一个没有任何人权侵犯的地方。所有人,无论属于任何种姓、教义、宗教、文化、人种、性别、职业都能够有尊严地活着。

任务
通过提高社会普罗大众的意识、增强执政者对弱势人群的关注、建立社会安全网络来维护所有人,特别是妇女和儿童的权利。




网站:http://www.rightsjessore.org
地址:RS Bhaban (2nd floor), Jail Road, Jessore 7400,Bangladesh

电子邮件: info@rightsjessore.org
电话:     +88 0421 66508
传真:     +88 0421 64243
手机:     0088-01711-18 20 23

亚洲艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织

关于建全联大特别会议汇报机制研讨会的报告

 

      联大特别会议(UNGASS)艾滋病毒和艾滋病的议题通过了2001年承诺宣言和2006年政治宣言以对抗艾滋病毒/艾滋病的传播。各联大会员国在宣言中承诺每两年定期提交一份关于各国的报告。亚洲艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织举办了一个研讨会以对建全联大特别会议汇报机制以及各国在宣传动员方面的努力加强了认识和了解。研讨会之后,大多数的成员国能够积极地执行研讨会制定的计划以实现既定的目标。

 

      以下的总结显示了各个会员国政府的参与所带来的发展势头以及宣传方面的成效。

 

各会员国政府实施宣传战略的总结

 

      为同时也是移民,卫生与艾滋病工作队成员的南亚和东南亚地区亚洲艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织成员举办的关于建全联大特别会议汇报机制研讨会在相关的议题和政府参与报告的过程等方面,成功地启发了上述组织成员以及联合国艾滋病规划署在各个联大成员国的工作团队。会议期间,为将移民工人的艾滋病议题包括在报告中,研讨会提出并确定了需要联大特别会议予以报告的各种问题。为此,与会者并制定了一个以宣传活动为主的工作计划。


   
为了实现既定的目标,大多数成员在2009125日和6日于尼泊尔举办的研讨会后,都非常积极地进行了宣传活动,开始参与全国艾滋病控制计划,与有关的政府机构和其各自所在国的联合国艾滋病规划署机构进行了接触。虽然各个成员国仍处于制定宣传措施的阶段,但仍有以下一些全国范围的行动细节可以用来参考:


孟加拉

 

       移民工人发展计划组织已与孟加拉国政府卫生和家庭福利部所属的全国艾滋病和性病计划的项目执行经理进行了接触。移民工人发展计划组织的Shakil先生与该经理就将移民工人的艾滋病议题包括在报告中进行了讨论。 

 

      此外,在国际移民组织与联合国艾滋病规划署共同委托下,移民工人发展计划组织进行了一项关于艾滋病毒预防教育评估性的研究。研究结果为促进解决移民工人的艾滋病毒问题而将举办的一个宣导会提供了确切的依据。

 

      Rights Jessore于国际移民日(1218日)发表了一则新闻,其中包括研讨会期间制定的与媒体宣传联合声明有关的议题。


   
为了进一步推广宣传,SHOSTI正准备向政府的高层官员提供亚洲艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织有关强制性检测和联合声明的政策简报。

 

柬埔寨


柬埔寨艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织(CARAM Cambodia)

      提供信息的人士Kem Ley博士是柬埔寨政府的顾问,负责该国撰写联大特别会议的报告。提供他的经验的同时,Kem Ley博士也了解了移民的问题并将这些问题纳入了他的报告。 他并且与柬埔寨艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织以及所有其他有关的成员互相交流了联大特别会议柬埔寨部分的报告 - 国家综合政策指数。该报告囊括了与移民工人及其移徙的权利有关的所取得的成就,遇到的挑战以及提出的建议。


印度尼西亚


Solidaritas Perempuan
移民工人工会(UNIMIG)


   
为了促进将移民工人的问题纳入联大特别会议相关国家的报告中,SP移民工人工会于2010118加入了联大特别会议印度尼西亚论坛而成为其新的成员。由于艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织成员的参与,结果导致了移民工入的问题将被纳入印度尼西亚的联大特别会议报告中。

 

      此外,联大特别会议印度尼西亚论坛准备提交一份关于联大特别会议印度尼西亚部分的非正式报告。为此,SP移民工人工会安排了一个与联大特别会议印度尼西亚论坛协调员的会议,专门讨论关于移民工人问题。

     民间社会组织论坛决定撰写一份关于2010年联大特别会议的非正式报告。SP确保了移民工人的问题被纳入涵盖与议题有关各个领域的非正式报告中。 作为民间组织论坛的成员,SP受邀参加了一个由NAC举办的会议,对印度尼西亚政府关于该国的报告以及移民工人与艾滋病有关的问题进行了交流和了解。

 
日本:SHARE


   SHARE
确定了为联大特别会议工作的主要日本民间社会组织, 其中包括非洲日本论坛(AJF),日本艾滋病与社会(JAS),日本艾滋病患者网络组织(JaNP+。他们与其他民间社会组织 [SHARE, CHARM, CRIATIVOS] 构建成了一个网络,在将移民权利和艾滋病问题纳入联大特别会议2010年报告的工作中相互协作。

 

斯里兰卡社区发展服务组织(CDS)


  
艾滋病及迁徙调查行动协调组织一样,CDS就关于移民工人艾滋病的问题向联大特别会议工作组表示了同样的关注。经过努力,尽管国家综合政策指数中的B部分提到了MWs,但是这还不是在重要的政策层面。


泰国Raks Thai Foundation


  
就联大特别会议的报告机制来说,泰国Raks基金会涉及与联大特别会议报告有关移民和难民人口的分组委员会。作为报告的一小部分,该基金会已经提交了一个名为"最佳做法"的章节并且将就其执行泰国移民工人艾滋病防治计划(PHAMIT)的工作以及其他一些相关的统计工作提交另一个章节。

 

越南:健康环境和发展学会(IHED)

 

      经过在联大特别会议举办的培训班里进行的讨论,在越南的健康环境和发展学会实施了所制定的措施中前两项活动:

 

1. 确定了在越南涉及联大特别会议报告机制的主要民间社会组织:ISDS(社会发展研究学会 - 其网址是http://www.isds.org.vn)和在越南的联大特别会议民间社会论坛(其网址是http://www.vcspa.org.vn/DetailIntroduction.aspx?IntroID=4

 

2. 健康环境和发展学会向联大特别会议民间社会论坛递交了成为其会员的申请表。虽然还需要一些时间,但健康环境和发展学会符合政策条件。如此,健康环境和发展学会将能够与其他组织相互进行合作。

 

      海湾地区是移民工人特别是来自南亚和东南亚地区的移民工人的目的地。海湾国家一向以普遍地侵犯移民工人权益而昭著。当涉及到死刑的时候,被司法系统处死的移民人数与其在当地人口的总数不成比例。

 

      对宗教,民族和种族的歧视在海湾国家是普遍的行为。来自孟加拉,印度,斯里兰卡,尼泊尔,巴基斯坦,菲律宾,印度尼西亚,苏丹,埃塞俄比亚以及其他一些国家的移民在海湾国家主要从事家务工作或低技术劳务工作。这些工人通常受到言论自由,宗教自由,诉诸司法和享有医疗保健的限制。他们的护照被扣留,受到身体和语言上的威胁以至于性的虐待。他们收不到工资并且在不安全和不卫生的条件下工作。

 

结论


   
正如这份报告所揭示,在海湾地区最弱势的群体最容易成为牺牲品。法律和程序问题,执法律上的失误,判决是否公正,得不到支持和援助等导致了海湾国家的移民被处死的人数极不成比例。于是我们看到,在这些国家里,司法是有偏见的 - 基于不同的国籍,种族,语言甚至于财富等因素,那些最弱势最无法保护自己的群体往往受到最严厉的对待和处罚。


建议

 

致巴林和沙特阿拉伯

•宣布暂缓死刑
•维护和确保执行司法的最高标准 - 包括公开,自由和公正的审判
•确保所有面对死刑的被告人都能获得律师的援助
•在所有相关的法律和政府机构向移民提供信息和翻译服务

致移民母国的代表

•移民的母国应放弃赚取海外汇款优先于人的生命,健康,福祉,权利和安全的政策
•在海湾国家设立大使或领事机构
•指派法律特使来处理劳工问题
•向负担不起费用的海外国民提供法律信息,援助和代理
•以母国的语言文字向移民工人提供其所在国有关他们的权利和法律方面的信息


致当地的非政府组织,社会以及慈善机构和组织

•协助使馆工作人员准备和发放给移民工人的信息材料
•向涉及法律纠纷的移民工人提供协助和后续援助工作


致移民所在国家的媒体机构和组织
•要停止媒体针对移民工人所作的种族仇恨宣传
•提供关于移民工人问题一贯,公正和准确的报道



Asia Report编译


原文链接:http://www.caramasia.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=858&Itemid=51


组织:

CARAM Asia 

CARAM Cambodia

Rights Jessore

Rak Thai Foundation

健康环境和发展协会(IHED)

Solidaritas Perempuan (SP)

Union Migrant Indonesia(UNIMIG)

SHARE

CDS

 

亚洲调查编者按

据统计,全球目前约3860万艾滋病毒携带者(PLWH),其中妇女数量接近一半。过去相关的艾滋病与生育的研究认为,由于有限的设施和资源,携带艾滋病毒的妇女并不寄望生产。然而,近年来抗逆转录病毒治疗(ART)的普及,使得更多艾滋病女性患者能够生活得更健康和长久。同时,ART的普及大大降低母婴传播的几率。

大量研究显示,越来越多的艾滋病女性患者渴望进行生育活动,对于该领域的研究需求也日益迫切。如何让妇女在决策过程中掌握主动权、追求生殖健康与权力成为学界探讨的焦点。

哈佛大学公共卫生院于20103月举行题为"女性艾滋病毒携带者的怀孕意愿:研究议程跟进"的学术论坛,会议集合了来自六个大洲、致力于性健康和生育权的不同学科的学者,共同探讨目前的研究成果以及未来研究方向。

大会报告针对艾滋病女性患者聚合现有研究成果,围绕以下六个主题进行探讨:艾滋对怀孕的渴望;防止怀孕的尝试;更安全的怀孕;怀孕的终止。并认为和所有妇女一样,艾滋病女性患者也拥有受孕和生产权利。报告因此呼吁多学科的跨界合作,弥补现阶段各学科之间的知识鸿沟,为艾滋病女性患者及其家庭提供更为全面和有效的信息,帮助其在生育决策过程中做出正确的决定。同时也能够促进改善相关领域政策和公共服务质量,为艾滋病女性患者及其家庭创造良好的社会空间。

PFD全文下载http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/pihhr/files/homepage/news_and_events/pregnancy_intentions_full_report.pdf
会议通讯:http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/pihhr/files/homepage/news_and_events/pregnancy_intentions_short.pdf

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韩国先驱报 - 20096月 - Yang Sung-jin

卡里姆和敏瑞各自有他们不同的问题,但都是处在韩国社会边缘的小人物。导演申东日将这两个角色放在一起,让人在发笑的同时又品尝到了其中的辛酸。在柏林国际电影节上,申东日导演被誉为韩国的伍迪·艾伦。

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合国开发计划署 - 2009310

联合国开发计划署和联合国艾滋病规划署的一项调查显示,尽管来自亚洲国家的女性移民劳工在阿拉伯国家能够从其工作中获得可观的收入,但在不安全环境中打工经常使她们成为性和暴力侵害的对象,因而极易受到艾滋病毒的感染。


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《国家》 - 20092

来自十个东南亚国家联盟(Asean)成员国的政府官员和数个国际组织相聚一起,讨论经济低迷对移动工人和HIV的影响。

报告:

改革的权利, 第一部分

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200812月 - Claire Kells

:Weatherhead 院主讨论会笔记


 

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